1.1 for one.” (Joe Ziemba) “Siblings are those with

1.1        
Sibling Relationships

“Sisters and brothers are the truest, purest forms
of love, family and friendship, knowing when to hold you and when to challenge
you, but always being a part of you.”  (Eastman,
2017).

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“They love each other. They’re
brother and sister. It’s one for all and all for one.” (Joe Ziemba)

“Siblings are those with whom one most closely shares genetic, family,
social class and historical background and to whom one is tied for a lifetime
by a network of interlocking family relationships” (White, 2001, p555). Sibling
relationship is incorporates activities as well as verbal and nonverbal
interactions between people who share the same biological parents (Cicirelli,
1991). Siblings assume a vital part in each other’s development throughout
lifespan (Yeh and Lempers 2004), also incorporated into young adolescent
(Jensen et al. 2013).

Siblings are an
installation in the family lives of children and adolescents, and an assemblage
of work documents their part in each other’s regular experiences as friends,
associates, combatants, and as the center of social comparisons (McHale, Kim,
and Whiteman, 2006). The
sibling’s relationship isn’t only influenced by them yet may likewise be
influenced by other individuals, circumstances and conditions (Furman and
Lanthier, 1996). Indeed, even inside the same family, one sibling get along
better with sibling or siblings than another.

1.1.1       
Traditional Perspectives on Sibling Rivalry

Brothers and sisters are among the
relatives with whom Islam commands us to uphold ties.  The Messenger of
Allaah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “Allah says: ‘I am
al-Rahmaan (the Most Merciful) and this rahm (tie of siblingship) has a name
that is derived from My name. Whoever uphold it, I will take care of him, and
whoever severs it, I will cut him off.'” (Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 1907; Abu
Dawood, 1694; classed as saheeh by Shaykh al-Albaani in al-Silsilah
al-Saheehah, 520). 

The Prophet (peace and blessings of
Allah be upon him) said: “Whoever would like his lifespan to be extended and
his provision to be increased, let him uphold the ties of siblingship.”
(Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 1961; Muslim, 2557).

Their rights also include: that you
should not harm any of them in word or deed. The Prophet (peace and blessings
of Allah be upon him) said: “The Muslim is the one from whose tongue and hand
the Muslims are safe.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 10; Muslim, 40). And he (peace
and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, in a lengthy hadith in which he
enjoined a number of virtues, “… If you cannot do that, then leave people alone
(and do not offend them), for that is an act of charity that you do for
yourself.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 2382; Muslim, 84).

Some of the sibling rivalry
incidents among different religious books i.e., Qur’an, the Torah and in the
Bible are presented like the account of Cain and Abel relate one sibling’s
jealousy after God seems to support his sibling, and the envy at last prompts
kill. Jacob traps his brother Esau out of his legacy and blessing; Sisters Leah
and Rachel rival for the love of Jacob;

In the renowned story in the Qur’an
about Joseph, Joseph’s siblings endeavored to hurt him, prodded on by jealousy
and rivalry. The Qur’an says, “Assuredly, in (this account of) Joseph
and his brothers there are many sans (messages) for seekers of truth”
(Yusuf 12:7). As is renowned, Prophet Jacob fathered twelve sons.
Notwithstanding, Jacob observed incredible potential in Joseph and in this way
he gave careful consideration to Joseph. Since this was self-evident, the other
siblings’ envy developed against Joseph. One night Joseph had a dream. When he
woke he said to his dad, “0 my father! I saw in a dream eleven stars, as
well as the sun and the moon: I saw them prostrating themselves before me”
(Yusuf 12:4).Jacob considered this dream, and he trusted it implied God would
give Joseph opportunity, gave on him an high level of respect and fame, and
make him a very important leader.

Mindful
of the sentiments of alternate siblings toward Joseph, Jacob dreaded they would
attempt to hurt him. So he let him know, “0 my son! Do not relate your
dream to your brothers, lest (out of envy) they devise a scheme against you.
For Satan is a manifest enemy to human siblings (and can incite them to do such
a thing)” (Yusuf 12:5). The Qur’an goes ahead to depict the arrangement
the siblings brought forth, a ghastly case of exactly how far rivalry between
kin can go: When they (the siblings tending to each other) stated, “Joseph
and his brother are indeed more loved by our father than we are, even though we
are a powerful band (of greater use to him). Surely, our father is manifestly
mistaken.”  (One of them said 🙂
“Kill Joseph, or cast him out in some distant land so that your father’s
attention should turn only to you, and after that you may again become
righteous people.” (Yusuf 12:8-9)

One can trace the instances of sibling
rivalry in literature as well. Some of Shakespeare’s plays showed the
occurrences of sibling rivalry. King Lear incited rivalry among his three
little girls by approaching them to portray their adoration for him; in a
similar play, Edmund thinks up to drive his stepbrother Edgar into cast out. In
The Taming of the Shrew, sisters Kate and Bianca were demonstrated fighting
harshly. In Richard III, the title character was to some extent propelled by
rivalry with his sibling, King Edward. In As You like It, there was clear
sibling competition and enmity amongst Orlando and Oliver, and furthermore
between Duke Frederick and Duke Senior. Most adjustments of Sherlock Holmes portrayed
sibling rivalry with his sibling, Mycroft Holmes (Wikipedia).

In the light of various traditional
perspectives, sibling relationships are seen as multidimensional as various
aspects of sibling relationship is acknowledged and we have elaborate example
of such aspects of their relationship as well. 
Both positive and negative sides of these relationships and its
associate interactions are also acknowledge like sibling rivalry, jealousy,
warmth, affection and competition.

1.1.2       
Factors Influencing Sibling Relationship

Siblings
for the most part of their childhood spend with each other than they do with
their parents. The sibling relationship was
generally been disregarded by researchers until the 1980s (Dunn, 2002). It was
frequently an unpredictable and complex relationship, like for some people it
can be a tremendous fountain of companionship and support (O’Bryant, 1988) yet
it can likewise be a wellspring of rivalry, discord or uncertainty (Connidis,
2007).

Dunn
(2002) refered to the three significant attributes of sibling relationships: 1)
the strength and articulation of both positive and negative feeling amid
childhood and pre-adulthood, 2) the closeness of the relationship which was
frequently a wellspring of either strife or support, and 3) these relationships
differed as per the individual differences of the sibling with some
demonstrating positive sentiments and love, others indicated antagonistic vibe
or animosity but others being undecided.

Sibling’s influence had gotten through a
variety of ways including sibling modeling (Whiteman et al., 2014),
differentiation between sibling (Schachter et al., 1976), and parental
differential treatment (Jensen et al., 2013). These processes were established
on the concept that siblings compare themselves with each other, yet social comparison
between siblings had gotten insufficient consideration. Considering the
apparently general nature of comparison, and additionally the behavioral and
psychological correlates of social comparison (Buunk and Gibbons, 2007), it was
essential to comprehend what part comparison plays inside family dynamics,
particularly between siblings.

1.1.3       
Sibling Interdependent Relations

As indicated by researchers Mack
(2004) and White (2001), relationships with family, especially kin, were seen
as gatherings of “nested circles” initially proposed by Parsons
(1943). The “inner circle” consisted of two conjugal families, those which were
usefully distinguished as the “family of orientation,” into which the child was
born, and the “family of procreation,” which was started by marriage.

The “outer circle” consisted of
four pairs of family; the first pair was called the “first ascendant” which
included the families of one’s parents. Second pair was called “collateral families”
the families of procreation of one’s own siblings and the third pair were known
as “the first descendant families” the families of procreation of one’s own
children. The last of “outer circle” family was the “in-law” family which is
the family of one’s spouse (Parsons, 1943).

Siblings, on the whole,
tend to fall in one’s “inner circles” in childhood, however
frequently move to the external circles as individuals’ age and consolidate
life partners and kids into the inner circles (White &S Riedmann, 1992).
Mack (2004) discussed about the infrequent situations of losing a parent in
childhood. In these cases, a kin may dependably stayed in an inner circle as a
source of support, as the kin may have fortified because of such a traumatic
incident.

Lempers
and Clark-Lempers in 1992 looked into the relative effective significance of
adolescents’ relations with their fathers, their mothers, their nearest
sibling, their best same-sex companions, and their most essential teacher,
separately. Adolescents’ closest sibling were positioned higher than their
parents, yet lower than their best same sex companions, for the traits of
amity, closeness, and nurturance.

In
an examination by Seginer (1998), 147 eleventh-grade teenagers reported their
siblings as a distinctive source of emotionally supporting partner, well beyond
parental help and peer acknowledgment. An aggregate of 75% of young people in
Woodward and Frank’s (1988) research asserted that sibling are the ones they
swing to for solace and talk while encountering lonesomeness.

1.1.4       
Siblings and Identity/Self

Significant continuity in the siblings’ relationships from childhood to
adolescence had been found in the Cambridge Sibling Study in England (Dunn,
1996). Positive and negative behaviors and sentiments of siblings about each
other in early years were significantly correlated with the nature of sibling
relationships later in adolescence. The nature of sibling relations may change
amid adolescence, in concurrence with the biological, cognitive, and social changes
that happened during that period of adolescence (Dunn et al., 1994).

The
conflict in the sibling relationship might be assessed by the personality and
individuality traits of the sibling (Dunn, 2002). Research demonstrated that
people who grow up with aggressive older sibling are themselves in peril of
negative consequences, for example, poor execution in school, involved with
peers and rising behavioral issues (Bank, Patterson, and Reid, 1996). Research
by Updegraff et al. (2005) demonstrated that sibling’s relational aggression was
correlated to more prominent negativity and lesser emotional support in their
sibling relationship

Regardless of whether
the impacts of positive sibling relations on development of adolescent are
direct or whether the connections between positive sibling relations and
adolescent development are intervened by different factors has not been
examined in previous researches.

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