1. help alleviate symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Surgeons also

1.      The
typical treatment for Parkinson’s disease is L-DOPA which is the precursor of
dopamine. When L-DOPA increases in the brain, remaining dopaminergic neurons have
to secrete more dopamine which for a small amount of time can alleviate the
symptoms of the disease. This is not a long-term fix, because after a while the
amount of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons decrease and the level eventually
becomes so low that the symptoms become worse over time. Following that the
L-DOPA activates DA neurons which can produce hallucinations and delusions. Deprenyl
is typically prescribed with L-DOPA. Deprenyl is a drug that inhibits activity
against MAO-B enzyme. Taking Deprenyl is supposed to help the dopaminergic neurons
experience less damage. It helps to slow down the progressions of Parkinson’s
disease. Though, taking MAO-B inhibitors treat the symptoms of Parkinson’s
disease it does not help stop the deterioration of dopaminergic neurons. Difficulty
starting to move, and tremors are related to the loss of dopaminergic neurons. There
is also an abnormality in the pons, midbrain, cerebellum, and thalamus. There are
different surgeries that can be administered for those who do not have any
positive help from L-DOPA. First, a person could get a transplant of fetal
tissue, which is supposed to promote the secretion and production of dopamine. Initially
this should help patients have control over their symptoms. This surgery is no
longer recommended because some patients who receive it have severe painful
movements, that means using aborted fetal dopaminergic cells is not the first
choice. The basal ganglia receive its output from the internal division of the Globus
pallidus (GP). The output directed through the subthalamic nucleus (STN) to the
motor cortex is inhibited. Which leads to a decrease of dopaminergic input to
the caudate nucleus and creates an increase in the GP activity.  Damage to the GP is thought to help alleviate
symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Surgeons also can focus on the STN to help
reduce symptoms. When L-DOPA came out, surgeons gave up on this surgery because
of the possible ill effects of having worse symptoms or going blind, but when
it was realized that L-DOPA was only a temporary fix they had to go back to
surgery experimenting. With modern technology this became easier and a better
way to help alleviate symptoms. The final surgery implants electrodes in the
STN or the GP and attaches a device that can allow a patient to electrically
stimulate the brain with electrodes. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic
nucleus is effective to help suppress tremors and has few side effects. The down
side to this is that is only affects the motor symptoms, not the cognitive
problems. 

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