1. with behavior, interviewer checklists, people reporting other people’s

1. First, my roommate is using displacement which is moving unacceptable wishes or motives to a neutral or an alternative that is less threatening. For example, throwing objects around or banging doors. Another defense mechanism would be regression. Regression is used when internal conflict is being dealt with and detect a threat by going back to a behavior that was immature-like or development at an earlier stage. For example, watching cartoons or wanting a soft blanket. The last defense mechanism would be rationalization and this is used for when there is a given explanation that sounds reasonable for feelings that are unacceptable including behavior. For example, studying isn’t helpful and it’s because you never do well in anything or what you need to do is get up and do research. The reason defense mechanisms exist is because it helps us overcome anxiety.

2. The person-situation controversy primarily focuses on if behavior is due to personality more or is it more with situational factors. Personality traits are determined biologically and causes people to have the same behavior with situations and time is this is a belief that classic trait theorists have. However, Walter Mischel saw that personality traits were not a good predictor of certain behaviors. The personal analysis of a situation as a determined behavior more than trait theorists was more emphasized by social-cognitive theorists. They also agreed with learning theorists that personality and behavior have very strong effects from environmental factors. Moreover, environmental factors were a primary focus for traditional learning theorists while someone’s interpretation on situations was a primary focus for social-cognitive psychologists. In conclusion, people have different reactions to similar situations because people have various personal constructs, expect certain outcomes, and loci of control.

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3.  The list of the Big Five dimensions of personality are experience, conscientiousness, extraversions, agreeableness, and neuroticism. These personality dimensions have the right balance between a lot personality variation while overlapping traits are avoided and what confirms this is the factor analysis techniques. These dimensions have also emerged by the use of different personality tasks which includes observations with behavior, interviewer checklists, people reporting other people’s personalities, and people reporting on their own personalities. In conclusion, the Big Five dimensions of personality do appear in people in other cultures, children, and adults.

4. (Grade this question) The three systems of the mind are id, ego, and superego. First, id is a very basic system, is present at birth, needs, impulses, desires, and is the main source for what the body wants. This system works based on the pleasure principal of automatic gratification. For example, someone would think to themselves, “you can get up early and study because you need a break. So, you should go out with your friends for a couple hours.”  The second system, ego functions on the reality principal which helps people push back automatic gratification and function within the world effectively. Moreover, the ego does make good decisions and is logical and controls our impulsive actions. For example, someone would say to themselves, “you can catch up to your friends later and possibly study for a few more hours. You will be in great shape in the morning to be able to finish studying as long as I don’t drink too much.” Lastly, the superego inhibits guilt if we have done something wrong; it is the parental authority that is conscious. It leads to giving us rewards for good decision making. For example, someone would say in their mind “The test is very important to you so it is best not to go out. You need to study tonight and study in the morning too. It’s best to be responsible for your academic career and know that your parents would want you to stay in and study.”

5. Humanistic psychologists think that a person’s abilities that are matched by tasks develop a mental focus termed flow that is energized. The experiences of flow lead to professional and personal growth. If tasks are extremely challenging, it can result in anxiety, whereas if a task is too easy, it results in boredom. Ashley possibly doesn’t have the skill-set that the courses need. The humanistic psychologist may encourage her to rethink her career and academic goals. She should possibly switch her major to something that is better and works for her abilities. On the other hand, Melanie’s issue with her academics has resulted in boredom and she should think about what she is passionate about and go into that coursework for those areas.



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