ABSTRACT
Lead acid batteries serve as huge energy reservoir since more than a century in our daily life. In
spite of being randomly optimized its various aspects in the past, till now Lead acid battery
researchers facing, a great challenge, is the Sulfation at the both positive and negative plates.
Besides, positive electrode grid Corrosion, longer curing as well as formation time of the positive
plate and also its low energy density because of high atomic weight of Lead (Pb). Thus, at present,
all the researches about Lead Acid Battery are completely focused onto gain high energy density
at low cost and to reduce sulfation. To suppress sulfation at the negative plate, we propose here
carbon coated tin oxide (C-SnO2) as a negative electrode additive for lead-acid batteries. C- SnO2
was synthesized by solid state synthesis from the mixtures of SnO2 and carbon precursor of
Petroleum-pitch. The structural and Physical properties of the materials were analyzed through
Powdered X-Ray Diffraction, Raman and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).
Electrochemical aspects are characterized by galvanostatic charge-discharge and impedance
spectroscopy. Experimental results indicates that cells addition of 0.25 wt % of C-SnO2 into the
negative active material reduces formation cycle from 3 cycle (Conventional cells) to 1 cycle.
More than 60 % specific capacity increment in capacity is achieved for the C- SnO2 added electrode
during the 1st cycle compared to conventional cell.. The cells also have shown good C-rate
capabilities at different rates up to 50 cycles in comparison to conventional cell. C- SnO2 added
cells deliver more than 25% capacity compared to conventional cells. They have shown very less
ohmic, surface, charge transfer resistance compared to conventional cell. Carbon increases
conductivity and SnO2 filled into the pores of the active mass provides electrolyte reservoir. Thus,
we can conclude that the additives we have used are very efficient to increase the capacity of the
cell in spite of having hard sulfation. Parallel studies shows that this additive also improves the
cycle life of the battery under 25 % of depth-of-discharge (DOD) and 50 % of DOD conditions
and high rate partial state of charge (HRPSoC) conditions. 

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