According school reform and school improvement literatures because of

According
to Galbraith & Fouch, (2007), global challenges such as  technological innovation, hyper-competition
and economic crunch present stimulus for change in human endeavours. Change
requires continuous learning to enable individuals to adapt to  global challenges and their environments. Teacher
faces enormous workplace challenges orchestrated by constant technological
innovations and the demands of the 21st century. The shifts in the way things
are done have forced institutions, organizations and businesses to demand more
efficiency from their employees The global challenges evidently require teacher
bodies such as the Ghana Education Service (GES) to employ creative approaches
to update staff knowledge and build capacity through continuous professional
development.

According
to OECD (2009), Teachers’ continuing professional development (CPD) has become
a major focus within the school reform and school improvement literatures
because of the belief that student learning and success are due, in large part,
to the effectiveness of teachers.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

According
to Opfer & David (2011), teacher professional development refers to ongoing
learning opportunities available to teachers and other education personnel to
enhance individual’s knowledge, expertise, skills,  and other characteristics as a teacher .
Professional development is seen as an essential mechanism for enhancing
teachers’ content knowledge and improving their classroom practices. If student
learning is to be improved, then one pathway for doing so is the provision of
more effective professional learning activities for teachers in schools; where
these activities result in positive change for teachers and their pupils (Opfer
& David, 2011). In Ghana, the government recognizes the need for the
training and development of quality human resource for the implementation and
achievement of the recommendations.

According
to Rahman et.al ( 2011), The quality of education depends on the hard work, ability,
 and dedication of teacher. The important
roles of  teachers is  in achieving a nation’s educational goals.

 According to Rahman et.al (2011), the knowledge
of the subject matter, competence, academic qualifications,  and skills of teaching and the commitment of
the teacher have effective influence on the teaching and learning process. This
means that teachers are expected to be competent and effective in their
classrooms. It also justifies the urgent need for the professional development
of teachers.

According
to Browell (2000), learning and the development of teachers, schools are able
to ensure that learning processes contribute to achieving the goals and the
enhancement of quality and learner performance in schools Policy makers and
education leaders are convinced that if they are going to make significant
improvement in the quality of education, good teachers are critical (Kaff,
2004).The future of every nation’s development depends on the quality of
education it provides for its young children. The Government of Ghana having
identified education as a key development tool of the nation and aiming to ensure
free access to quality basic education has worked tirelessly over the years to
achieve these goals. As a result, policies such as the abolition of school
fees, introduction of the capitation grant and the school feeding programme
were introduced by the Ghana government. The study reached the conclusion that
the management and utilization of instructional time was a fundamental problem
which undermined the quality of education in public schools. Similarly, poor
instructional quality has also been identified a major problem for Ghanaian
schools. Ghana Education Service has since 2005 developed a framework for the
implementation of in-service education and training policy for basic education.
The aim is to establish an institutionalized structure for continuous
professional development of basic school teachers. However, in spite of these
efforts by Ghanaian government to improve teaching and learning in the public
basic schools, it appears that these interventions are not yielding the desired
returns because students’ performance in the basic education certificate
examinations in the Kassena-Nankana West District public schools continues to
decline For instance, 3.93% decline rate was recorded in pupils’ basic
examination results between 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 academic year in the
district addressing the trajectory of pupils’ performance in schools.

Cobbold
(2007) has a of view governments has to recruit an adequate number of highly
competent, stable, well-qualified,  and
dedicated teachers in order to achieve the goals of educational policies such
as the FCUBE for all school going-age children and the model secondary schools
policy which focuses on expansion of physical infrastructure and enrolment. To
address this issue of poor students’ performance in the district, many
interventions have been put in place by the Ghana Education Service directorate
in the district Kassena-Nankana West District to address the pedagogical and
content knowledge of teachers though teacher professional development.
Professional development embraces almost anything that is deemed relevant to
improve the skills of the classroom teacher in order to facilitate and improve
his/her performance.

According
to Tanner and Tanner (1987), teachers’ professional development is significant
mainly for two reasons. Firstly, knowledge is evolving continually. Some new
things come out each day which the teacher needs to refresh his/her mind for
the challenges it brings. Secondly, the authors purport that principles and
practices of teaching were more involving than what the teacher receives during
the pre-service preparatory phase in college.

According
to Bolam & Weindling (2006), the real challenges of teaching are in the
classroom, where the new teacher requires understanding to overturn the
challenge.

Rahman
et al ( 2011) found out that marginal increases in-service training have no
statistically or academically significant effect on either reading or math
achievement, suggesting that modest investments in staff development may not be
sufficient to increase the achievement of elementary school children in high
poverty schools.

Another
study conducted by Harris & Sass (2006) cited in (Rahman et al, 2011) who
studied the effects of various types of education and training on the ability
of teachers to promote student achievement, found out that there is no evidence
that either pre-service or undergraduate training or the scholastic aptitude of
teachers influences their ability to increase student achievement. A questionnaire
and interview guides were used for data collection in this study. The final
administered questionnaire measured teachers’ management skills under
sub-themes such as planning and preparedness, teaching and assessment
strategies, and classroom management skills, and teacher quality. Using a
5-point Likert scale with Strongly Disagree-1, Disagree-2, Uncertain-3, Agree-4
and Strongly Agree in relation to teacher professional development
intervention. The Cronbach’s alpha values of the aggregated factors spanned
between 0.644 and 0.849 for the questionnaire used. According to Leech,
Barrette and Morgan (2005), alpha value of 0.70 and above indicates a
reasonable internal consistency and alpha values between 0.60 and 0.69 indicate
minimally adequate reliability. Ary, Jacobs and Razavieh (2002) explain that if
the results are used to make decisions about a group or for research purposes,
reliability coefficients of 0.50 to 0.60 are accepted. Aside the individual
alpha values of the aggregated factors which were reliable, the overall
internal consistency of the instrument (questionnaire) was 0.89. The study
concludes that teacher quality and effective teaching are important in
improving teaching and learning goals in the school system. Also, teacher
professional development should not be underestimated in building teachers’
capacity in any school system.

According
to Elmore (2002), engaging teachers in quality professional learning is the
most successful way to improve teacher’s effectiveness. In addition, teaching
is a dynamic profession and as new knowledge about teaching and learning
emerges, new types of expertise are required by educators. Teachers must keep
abreast of this knowledge base and use it to continually refine their
conceptual and skills.

According
to Bransford  et al. (2000), the growing
evidence base about student learning forms a compelling case for engaging
teachers in  effective professional
learning and has profound implications for how it is taught, what is taught,  and how learning is assessed  Collaborative CPD is another methodology that
has been shown to be effective.

Cordingley
et al. (2005) carried out a systematic review of seventeen studies of
collaborative and sustained continuing professional development (CPD) in
various contexts. They found that when teachers engage in collaborative CPD,
defined as ‘teachers working with at least one other related professional on a
sustained basis’, there was improvement in pupils’ learning and behavior, and
in teacher’s practices, attitudes and beliefs. Similar populations of teachers
engaged in individually oriented CPD did not achieve the same outcomes: there
was only weak evidence of change.

Aelterman
(2010) found out that Belgian primary student teachers did not spontaneously
engage in collaborative activities, even though they put a high value on
collaborative learning for their pupils.

Cordingley
and colleagues (2005) also found that collaborative CPD worked best when
outside expertise was brought in to the teaching context, and when outside
providers developed fruitful and respectful partnerships with teachers.

Another
study conducted that is similar to the result of the study of  Buddin and Zamarro (2009) it show that the
relationship between teachers’ qualification and pupils academic performance in
the Basic Education Certificate Examination in 2010, 2011 and 2012 was
statistically not significant. 

x

Hi!
I'm Marcella!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out