As speed, asymmetry and increased metabolic cost compared to

As we mentioned before, gaits
such as decreased walking speed, asymmetry and increased metabolic cost
compared to bilateral amputees at the same waking speed, are often seen in
unilateral transtibial amputees. According to Aslani et al (2016), the energetic
cost of walking and running increases as the increasing speed of movement,
which has been shown be the previous researches. Also, it’s been demonstrated that
different gait patterns result in difference energetic cost. Aslani (2016)
indicated that heart rate and oxygen consumption can be measured as parameters
for energy consumption, which can be further analyzed for MHR and gait
efficiency. However, obvious changes from these parameters could be hard to
detect, so that the above methods might be only suitable for the overall indicator.

Some previous studies indicated that displacement of Centre of Mass (CM) positively
correlates to energy consumption during jumping activities. Gait energy
transfer efficiency during jumping activities equals to the displacement of CM
at aerial phases divided by displacement of CM at stance phase, which also
equals to the output mechanical energy divided by the input stored energy. Having
said that, compared to walking activities, oscillation of the CM on the
vertical place is much higher, resulting in higher energy expenditure

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