Based boiled in water to form a thick wood

Based on
J.K. Lakshmipat (2012)
trees provide the primary raw material for the paper.  Wood is made
from is cellulose in the form of fiber. Cellulose
fiber can found in many vegetable tissues, that can be freely be extracted by
mechanical or chemical means. These sources are so much numerous in plant
species from which it can be derived, and the number of species gives fiber
which could be used for paper runs into thousands.  

The
trees are cut down and the trunk is put into a chipping machine where it is cut
into very small pieces. Then the wood chips that contain cellulose are boiled
in water to form a thick wood pulp Chemicals.  Fresh river water is used in paper making
process. The pulp is washed, refined, cleaned and
sometimes bleached, then turned to slush in the beater. Color dyes, coatings
and other additives are mixed in, and the pulp slush is pumped onto a moving
wire screen. As the pulp goes down the screen, water is drained away and
recycled. The resulting crude paper sheet, or web, is compress between large
rollers to remove most of the remaining water and ensure smoothness and uniform
thickness.  The pulp is spilled over
a fine mesh and the water escapes leaving the cellulose fiber behind. The
finished paper is wound into large rolls, which can be 30 feet wide and weigh
close to 25 tons. A slitter cuts the paper into smaller, and the paper is ready
for use. That will form papers. V. Ryan (2004)

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Based on Times
Op-Ed (2013) the average consumer uses 500 bags a year, about 80 percent
plastic and 20 percent paper. Plastic bags cost retailers like grocery stores 2
cents to 5 cents each, and paper ones cost 5 cents to 23 cents.

                In study
that conducted by, Edelman Berland they found out that gauge
consumer perceptions of different types of bags, to specify how often reusable
bags are used to, and to try and established the future that plastic and
paper bags will continue to play in checkout lines. The respondent that was
surveyed composed of consumers who have either received or purchased reusable
non-woven polypropylene (NWPP) bags—roughly 28 percent of a nationwide sample.
J. Eick (2014)

Kathryn
Sukalich (2016) stated that in 2011,
over 66.8 percent of paper consumed in the United States was recycled. Each ton of papers
that recycled saves more than 3.3 cubic yards of landfill space, and if they
measure through weight, more paper is recovered for recycling than plastic,
aluminum and glass combined. Paper is a material that used to recycling, since 87 percent in society have access to curbside or
drop-off recycling for paper. So basically after the consumer used papers they
will collecting it and recycled again.

This paper analyze the life cycle of papers because paper
bags is made of paper that usually used
as shopping bags, packaging, and big sacks.

II. Life Cycle Analysis of Plastic Bag

                Plastic
bags are made from a ubiquitous polymer substance polyethylene. This kind of
substance begins as ethylene, and it is commonly extracted from natural gases, and
then treated to become the polymer, that forming long chains of carbon and
hydrogen atoms. These chains will be depending on what type of polyethylene is
being used, but they all help create various types of plastic bags. T. Lacoma  (2017). A Polythene is produced from crude oil
and natural gas, two non-renewable resources is found underground, through a
process known as the tubular film process. 

                Basically there are many types
of polyethylene in creating plastic bags the HDPE, PETE, LDPE, LLDPE, PVC, PP,
and PS. The HDPE stands for high density polyethylene, it is the most and common
type of polyethylene used to create shopping bags. Polyethylene Terephthalate
(PET or PETE) is tough, clear and has good gas and moisture barrier compositions
that making it ideal for carbonated beverage applications and other food Tupperware
or containers. The LDPE is made from low density, branching chains of
polymer materials.  This chain makes a very light, almost film like
plastic that is used to make the tear-away bags dry cleaners that are used for wrapping
cleaned clothes. The LLDPE is connected to linear low density polyethylene; these
plastics do not branch, but also didn’t have the same strength as HDPE
versions.  It means that the shopping bags created from LLDPE plastics
need to be thicker and heavier weight that traditional grocery bags.  PVC
is known as Polyvinyl Chloride which is excellent transparency, chemical
resistance, long term stability, good weather ability and stable electrical
properties. The flexible vinyl is used in wire and cable sheathing, insulation,
film and sheet, flexible floor coverings, and others. The Polypropylene (PP)
has excellent chemical resistance and it is commonly used in packaging.
Polypropylene is found in everything that are flexible and rigid packaging to
fibers for fabrics and carpets and consumer products. Then Polystyrene (PS) is
a versatile plastic that can be rigid. The general purpose of polystyrene is
clear, hard and brittle. Its clarity allows it to be used
when transparency is important, as in medical and food packaging, and in
certain electronic uses.

                According to Rutan Poly
Industries, INC. (2014) to create plastic bags the process is similar to the
process for creating a book. There are two steps to make plastic bags the
process known as “extrusion” first step in making a plastic bag. An extruder is
used to heat the polyethylene plastic to a temperature of up to 500 degrees F
that can melt the pellets, and then the molten plastic flow
into machine and a die that determines the thickness that the bag will produce.
Afterwards, the plastic film is pushed into a bubble by the outside
air and through a cooling process. Then the film will cut into the appropriate
size and then placed onto a spindle. On the second step, once the plastic bag
is placed onto the spindle, it will go into conversion department. This group
of people will unwraps the film roll and cuts it with a heated knife that also
seals each of the sides of the bags together and conversion also adds some
characters on it. Lastly handles are cut out using a heat process, and logos,
designs and text is added to the bag.  On
plastic bags the chemicals is in use are the commonly extracted from natural
gases and oil crude that involves the types of polyethylene.

Based
on Plastic Industry over 150,000 plastic bags capable on two pallets. The same
number of paper bags would fill a 40ft truck. Plastic is also very strong.
Supermarket bags can hold at least 22lb of shopping. Some hold twice that.
Every year, each person consume 216 plastics and an estimated of 500 billion are
being used around the globe each year. It is commonly use for shopping and
being thrown for an average of 20 minutes. Daily Mail Reporter (2008) indicated
that the five trillion carrier bags produced each year start life as crude oil.
Demand is so high that 0.2% of the world’s oil is used to make them – about 60
million barrels.

D. Consumer Use

 

                E.
Post-Consumer Use

                Based
on the assessment over 86,000–117,000 tons 18kg per person of post-consumer
plastic packaging waste was generated in Finland in 2014. In majority, 84% of
the waste was in the mixed MSW flow in 2014. In year 2016, almost 40% of the
post-consumer plastic packaging could become available for recycling. Because
launching new sorting facilities and separate collections for post-consumer
plastic packaging. Hence , 50% recycling rate for post-consumer plastic
packaging (other than PET bottles) would be needed to increase the overall MSW
recycling rate from the current 41% by around two percentage points. H.
Dahlbo, et al. (2017)

 

III. Conclusion

As
you can see from the information above, creating plastic bags is a fairly
simple and easy process that industry can do quickly and without a lot of
trouble. A lot of bags can be produced in only a few minute, and since the
process is so easy, the cost of the plastic bags keeps down to an affordable
price. Plastic bags are very easy to be made and they have so many different
purposes that make them handy in our everyday lives. 

Then
as you can see paper bags came from trees, a lot of trees in logging
industries. The trees are found, marked and felled in a process that all too
often involves clear-cutting,
resulting in huge destruction and long-term ecological damage. Needs a mega
machinery that requires fossils to operate. Then in the process of making
papers it needs a lot of materials to create a product. But in terms of raw
material, paper bags are much better to use since it is renewable, recyclable
and biodegradable unlike plastic bags, scientist estimate it takes 400 to 1,000
years to vanish.

IV. References

J.K. Lakshmipat (2012) Pulp Production  http://www.jkpaper.com/index.php?option=com_content&

view=article&id=
55&Itemid=56

V. Ryan (2004) How Paper and Card
are Manufactured http://www.technologystudent.com

/despro2/crdpap1.htm

Times Op-Ed (2013) Plastic and
paper bags hide costs as well as groceries. Retrieved from http://www.nj.com/south-jersey-voices/index.ssf/2013/07/opinion_plastic_and_paper_bags.html

J. Eick (2014) Consumer
Behavior and Retail Bag Usage https://www.alec.org/article/consumer-behavior-retail-bag-usage/

Kathryn, Sukalich (2016) Everything
You Need to Know About Paper Recycling https://earth911.com/
business- policy/ business/paper-recycling-details-basics/

Lacoma, Tyler (2017) Materials Used
for Making Plastic Bags http://sciencing.com/materials-used-making-
plastic-bags-5267902.html

Rutan Poly (2014) How are Plastic
Bags Made? http://rutanpoly.com/plastic-bags-made/

H. Dahlbo, et al. (2017) Recycling
potential of post-consumer plastic packaging waste in Finland https://

www.sciencedirect.com/
science/ article/pii/S0956053X17307791

Daily Mail Reporter (2008) The life
cycle of a plastic bag. Retrieved from http://www.thisismoney.co.uk/money/bills/article-1620912/The-life-cycle-of-a-plastic-bag.html

 

 

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