Blood transfusion is one of the most
important parts of clinical practice which . Discovery of Transfusion transmitted
infections has made a new breakthrough step in blood transfusion practice in the world. These are
infections which have the potential to be transmitted to the recipient by
transfusion of infected blood as well as blood products. But, blood
transfusion is an important but not the main route of transmission.
Potential infectious agents
that can be transmitted by blood are Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B and C, EBV, Herpes,
Parvo viruses, CMV & Treponema pallidum (spirochaetes), malaria/Filarial
Parasites, Chaga’s and Toxoplasmosis and some bacterial infections like
Pseudomonas, Streptococcus etc. The most feared of them all are Human Immunodeficiency
Virus, Hepatitis B and C, and Syphilis. They have a complex clinical course and
the possibility to be cured by the currently available therapies is limited.
Hepatitis B and C caused by Hepatitis B &
C virus. They are transmitted through sexual contact. Parenteral exposure and sometime by close
contact, they cause acute and chronic liver disease like inflammation, cirrhosis,
hematoma (cancer),liver failure etc. They usually asymptomatic and discovered
only during routine laboratory tests. Several viral markers are available for
detection of Hepatitis B virus. Among them major viral marker used for the
detection of HBV infection is Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg).It is the
first marker to appear in the blood during acute stage of HBV infection. Hepatitis
C antigen and antibodies used for the detection of HCV infection.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
transmitted via blood and body fluids. Acute stage is often non specific or sub
clinical. There is prolong period of clinical latency with virus in the blood
before onset of AIDS. Donor in the incubation period and early infection cannot
Risk of TTI through a blood
transfusion is particularly high in countries where there is a significant
prevalence of infection in the donor population.
It is essential part of the global
strategy to ensure supplies of safe blood. Assuring safety of blood is a
multifaceted approach. It is actually joint responsibility of national health
authority, hospital administration, clinician, blood banks and community. So we
have to have a national system being ensure safe blood supply. So we have to
recruit healthy donors with a low risk of TTI . We ensure do mandatory testing
of all donated blood.
Our goal is to supply of safe blood
product. But we have some limitation, like genetic diversity of viruses,
serotypes, subtypes and mutant strains and sensitivity of screening assay .Also
we have some challenges like new and re emerging infection and limited
Whatever your job, your role in this
process is extremely important. You need to develop knowledge and skills to
ensure blood donation is safe to both donor and recipient.