Chapter 1 Development stages and eating behaviors for the
first and second year of life
– 6 months)
In the first four to six month of life, infants have tongue extrusion
reflex so it seems like a baby refusing solid food by using his tongue to push
the food out. Due to the tongue-thrust motion, breast milk or formula are the only
thing going into your babies’ tummy. Eating skills in this period includes suckle,
suck and swallow liquids. Sucking hands is a sign that an infant is hungry and crying
is the late sign of hunger. He may open mouth during feeding, indicating desire
to continue. When satisfied, he stop sucking and turn their head away from the
nipples or fall asleep.
sitter (6 – 7 months)
Between six and seven months your baby might start to sit alone
with some support and show interest in puts hands and toys frequently in mouth.
Your baby might be ready to try some food tastes and signal that they shows
signs of chewing movements. Tongue does not protrude but get an ability to back
and forth as food enters mouth. Instead of splitting food out, they can keep
food in mouth and swallows it. In this period, breastmilk does not provide
enough nutrition for infants so they seem still hungry after breast feeding and
cry for more food. When seeing food approaching, they lean forward and try to
reach the food and open mouth. When no longer hungry, they start to lose
interest in foods and move their head towards a spoon and turn away from a
Supported sitters are often ready to Stage 1 of complementary food
which are puree.
sitter (7 – 8 months)
At this stage, your baby can sit independently, like to
pick up and bring food to mouth. They probably have some teeth present so it is
an adequate time for leaning to chew and bite. Stage 2 complementary food,
which have larger pieces in food than in puree, can be introduced to your baby
at this time. It seems they are excited to explore finger foods and how to use
spoon. When hungry or want more food, they will open mouth and move toward
spoon, try to grab food or point to food. When satisfied, they will hold mouth
shut, push food away or turn away from spoon.
– 12 months)
Most of babies learn to crawl between 8 to 12 months and
may pull self up to stand. They develop an ability to transfer items from one
hand to another and tend to put everything in their mouth. Your baby can now be
acquainted with moving jaw in a chewing motion and swallow food more easily.
They do not try to push food out of mouth with tongue any more. An extended
range of food with varied texture and flavor has a great appeal to your baby.
More teeth come in so they can bite well and can chew soft lumps. Stage 3
complementary food is introduced at this age with chunky texture. The sign of
hunger is when your baby shows a lot of excitement to see food and try to reach
or point to food. They will slow down eating, push food away when no longer
to walk – independent toddler (12 – 24 months)
Between 12 months and 2 years, toddlers can stand alone and learn
to walk, run and climb. In this period, they also begin to imitate the eating
behavior of adults and other children and they are probably going to have
capacity to feed themselves with a spoon. They also can drink fluid from a
straw and hold cup with two hands and take swallows. Chewing skills gain more
improvement and a variety of textures can be bitten through. In these years,
toddlers begin to distinguish foods by sight, smell and taste, and they might
start to name a food or reject it when they want or do not want to eat.
In this stage, toddlers also begin to use verbal expression to ask
for their desired food when hungry. It can be words or sounds, combines phrases
with gestures, such as “want that” and pointing. They may join in family food
but the texture of some food should be altered to prevent choking of toddlers.
Chapter 2 Complementary feeding (solid) and joining family
Why should avoid to introduce
complementary foods before around six months of age?
Young infants may display an enthusiasm for food you are
eating at an early age, yet that does not imply that you should give him a
taste. The complementary foods can be safely introduced by the age of six
months but not before four months. At this stage, most of average infants are
physically and physiologically ready to adapt to such foods. The considerable
area of development includes chewing, swallowing, digestion and renal function.
As mentioned above, young infants have tongue-thrust reflex
which protect them against choking. When any unusual substances come into the
tongue, it is naturally pushed outward instead of back. Since four to six
months, this reflex steadily lessens which give the infant a chance to taste
and swallow the food to the stomach. The teeth eruption also change the eating
behavior from sucking to chewing and biting. Therefore, infants can experience
a various range of food with different textures.
Until the infant is four to six months, their body is not
able to produce sufficient level of enzymes to deal with starchy food for
example pancreatic amylase. Additionally, it is vital to perceive that from
birth until somewhere between four to six months, babies have something which
is known as an “open gut”. This “open gut” enables proteins
to pass straightforwardly from the small intestines and into the circulatory
system. This procedure happens to permit antibodies from a mother’s breastmilk
to enter the infant’s circulation system. However, the bigger particles from
strong substances can likewise go through which may cause allergies or illness
(molecules can carry pathogen along with them).
Another reason not to introduce complementary food before
six months of age is due to the limited renal (kidney) function in early
infancy. Once your baby reach this stage, their renal function is adequately mature
and enable to cope with complementary food which contain higher levels of
minerals and salt.
Risks related with late introduction of complementary foods
However, if your baby starts to get acquainted with solid
foods later than this time, he might face the risks of iron deficiency, growth
faltering and micronutrient deficiencies because breastmilk does not meet
enough nutrient quantity for infant development. Therefore, in order to
maintain an adequate development, your baby need another source of nutrition
from food supply.
The benefits of extended breastfeeding beyond period of
Breastfeeding is the healthiest start for your baby from
newborn until when complementary food is introduced. Breastfeeding is further
recommended to continue until 12 months of age and beyond, for as long as you
and your baby desire. Despite the fact that your baby gets most of his
nutrition from solid food after first year, breastmilk still gives many
necessary advantages. Breastmilk provides energy, essential fatty acids and
fat-soluble vitamins. It also contains numerous defensive factors like secreted
IgA that assistance to protect infants from the effects of microorganisms and
other harmful substances in the diet. The infant’s own immune system develops
after birth, and during early life mother’s milk can help combat some childhood
infections. Studies demonstrate that breastfeeding toddlers are sick less than
Beyond that, breastfeeding nourish the mother and baby
relationship and promote neurological development, both of which are vital for
How to introduce complementary food (solid) and
progressing to family foods?
The aim of complementary feeding is to support your baby to get
the sufficient nutrition when breastmilk is no longer enough to provide these
needs. The transition from breastfeeding to family food start around 6 months
to 18-24 months of age. This period is extremely vulnerable when children have
the highest risk of malnutrition. Therefore, infants should receive
complementary food timely, around six months onwards, with adequate amount,
frequency, consistency and nutritional values that meet the requirement of the
However, breastmilk remains the most essential nutrient source for
your baby in the first year of life. Thus, complementary feeding must not take
part in your baby’s diet in a way that will dramatically decrease milk intake.
This can be accomplished at first by giving milk feed before giving
complementary foods, which is used to fulfill at the end of the meal. As soon
as your baby is nine months old, milk feeding can be offered after
complementary feeding. The quantity of milk can be gradually replaced by
complementary foods but still play a prominent part of your baby’s until he is
at least one year of age.
The introduction of complementary food is successful when it
overcomes your baby’s aversion to new eating experience, which is a common
reaction in most infants. Solid food should prepared in various way to help
your baby to enjoy different taste as well as texture.
Chapter 4 Organic complementary for the best start
Organic eating and your babies: the benefits
Organic food labelling
100 PERCENT ORGANIC. This term can be applied to mark any
product that contains 100 percent organic ingredients (excluding salt and
water, which are considered natural).
ORGANIC. This term can be applied to mark any product that make
up of a minimum of 95 percent organic ingredients (excluding salt and water).
Up to 5 percent of the ingredients may be nonorganic agricultural products but
are accepted to use in organic products.
MADE WITH ORGANIC INGREDIENT.
This term can be applied to mark any product that comprises at least 70 percent
organically produced ingredients (excluding salt and water). The organic
ingredients must be identified (e.g., organic alovera).
SPECIFIC INGREDIENT LISTINGS. The
Organic foods are affordable
Children under the age of one should not drink honey due to the
presence of intracellular botulinum in the honey. After one year, only a small
amount is allowed in necessary. Research shows that in the soil and dust there
is a germ, which during the bee harvest process, often carries the pollen and
bile that have the bacteria on the nest, causing the honey to be contaminated,
the newborn in the ring 6 months are very susceptible to this type of bacteria
and appear to poisoning such as constipation, fatigue, poor appetite.
In addition, the honey may have a certain hormone content, if
taken for a long time, can cause children to get up early. Therefore, whether
the baby is over one year old, should not drink honey arbitrarily. Wait until
children are over 10 years old, they can drink more, drink as much as adults.