Disorder 13.1%, as compared to older children (10-15 years);

of psychological function best describes mental health problem or psychiatric
disorder by the client of psychiatrists (Golderberg & Williams, 1988). Based
on Dr Hilmi Yahaya, the Deputy Health Minister in 2013, these disorders are not
all serious mental illnesses as Schizophrenia or Dissociative Identity Disorder
that only takes up to 1% of the people in any psychiatric building including
Bukit Padang or Tanjung Rambutan. The prevalence of mental health problems
among adults increased from 10.7 % in 1996 to 29.2% in 2015. This survey showed
that females, younger adults, other Bumiputras, and adults from low income
families, seems to be at risk of mental health problems (Ministry of Health
Malaysia, 2015). This survey also revealed that the younger children (5-9
years) showed higher prevalence of mental health problems; 13.1%, as compared
to older children (10-15 years); 11.4%.). By ethnicity, other Bumiputras showed
highest prevalence of mental health problems (16.5)% followed by Chinese (14.2%),
Indians (13.8% )and others (12.9%). Lowest prevalence was found among Malays;
10.4 % (Ministy of Health Malaysia, 2015). Up to 75% of those diagnose with an
anxiety disorder have at least one other comorbid psychiatric condition
(Freeman, Freeman & McElroy, 2002).

2.0 Definition

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disorders often present together with other psychiatric or physical conditions
(Antony & Swinson, 1996). Anxiety disorders are known to be one of the most
common of psychiatric conditions (MOH, 2015). 
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th
Edition (DSM-V), the features of anxiety disorders include excessive fear and
anxiety and related behavioural disturbances. Fear and anxiety brings a
different meaning where fear is the emotional response to real or perceived imminent
threat, whereas anxiety is anticipation of future threat. Based on the American
Psychiatric Association, anxiety is a normal reaction to stress and can be
beneficial in some situations which can alert people to dangers and help them
to prepare and pay attention.

3.0 Symptoms

disorder include panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, social anxiety
disorder, specific phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalised anxiety
disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder (ICD-10; DSM-V). Below are the
symptoms of each one of anxiety disorders based on International classification
of diseases and related health problems, 10th (ICD-10) and the
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th Edition

Generalised anxiety disorder

            The main features of generalised
anxiety disorder are excessive anxiety and worry. The patients suffer from
somatic anxiety symptoms, as well as from restlessness, irritably, difficulty
concentrating, muscle tension, sleep disturbances and from being easily

Panic Disorder

            Panic disorder is characterised by
recurrent panic attacks which consists of discrete periods of intense fear,
accompanied by at least four of 14 somatic and psychological symptoms (13 in
DSM-V). A panic attack reaches a peak within 10 minutes and lasts 30 to 45
minutes on average. Usually, the patient is afraid that he has a serious
medical condition, and fears he is going crazy or going to die.

Specific Phobia

            Specific phobia characterised as
being excessive or unreasonable fear of specific objects or situations. For
example, flying, heights, animals, seeing blood or being robbed. Exposure to
the feared object, situation or phobic stimulus elicits an anxiety response and
is usually avoided or endured with a dread. This may affect and even compromise
the daily functioning of a person.

Social Anxiety Disorder

            This disorder is characterised by
persistent, marked and unreasonable fear of being observed or evaluated
negatively by others in social, performance, or interaction situations, and is
associated with somatic and cognitive symptoms. The feared situations are
avoided or are endured with distress or intense anxiety. These situations
include fears of speaking in public , speaking to unfamiliar people, or being
exposed to possible scrutiny by others.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

            OCD is characterised by recurrent
obsessions, compulsions, or both, that cause impairment in terms of distress,
time, or interference with functioning. Concerns involving contamination harm
and sexual, somatic and religious preoccupations are the most common
obsessions. Compulsions include washing , checking, repeating, ordering,
counting and hoarding. 

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

            This occurs to people who experience
terrifying ordeal that involved physical harm or the threat of physical harm.
Their condition comes from recurrent and intrusive distressing recollections of
the event, nightmares, a sense of reliving the experience with illusions,
hallucinations or dissociative flashback episodes, intense psychological or
physiological distress at exposure to events that resembles that person
traumatised, avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma, inability to
recall important aspects of the trauma, loss of interest, estrangement from
others, sleep disturbances, irritability, difficult to concentrate, hyper
vigilance, and exaggerated startle response. These people with PTSD are in need
of treatment if the symptom picture is still present for more than one month.


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