Frankincense essential oil (FREO) is an oil made from

Frankincense essential oil (FREO) is an oil made from resin that’s obtained from trees of the genus Boswellia. During ancient time, frankincense resin extract and essential oil were extensively used in enormous amount of health purposes in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine. FREO was traditionally used for their inflammatory properties. But recently, FREO has became increasingly popular for promoting skin care or health. However, there weren’t much or any research on the background of FREO and its effect on the skin. Therefore, this group of researchers has decided to explore the biological activities of a FREO in human dermal fibroblasts. They had first studied the effect of FREO on the levels of 17 important biomarkers that were involved or related to inflammation, the immune response, and tissue remodeling within the skin cells. Afterwards, they had conduct a study to show the effect of FREO on expression levels of 21,224 genes where the used the genome-wide analysis of the same cell.     All of the experiments involved  in this research was conducted in a BioMAP HDF3CGF system. This type of system involves a cell culture of human dermal fibroblasts that’s designed to model a chronic inflammation and fibrosis in a reproducible way. The system is made up of three components. The first component is consist of a cell type. The second component consists of a stimuli that’s used to create the disease environment that the cell is being tested in. The last and final component consist of the levels of the 17 important biomarkers that’s used to examine how treatments affect the disease environment created by the second component of the BioMAP HDF3CGF system.In the experiment, primary human neonatal fibroblasts (HDFn) were obtained and 24 hours before the stimulation with cytokines, they were plated in low serum conditions. For the measurement of the biomarker levels of cell-associated and cell membrane targets, a Direct ELISA was used. The Zymo Quick-RNA MiniPrep kit made by the Zymo Research Corporation in Irvine, CA was used to isolate the the total RNA from cell lysates. Then the RNA concentration was determined using the NanoDrop ND-2000 (Thermo Fisher Scientific). Finally the RNA quality was assessed with a Bioanalyzer 2100 made from Agilent Technologies in Santa Clara, CA and an Agilent RNA 6000 Nano Kit. The results has shown that all samples had an A260 or an A280 ratio between 1.9 and 2.1 and an RNA Integrity Number score that’s greater than 8.0 in the RNA isolation process of the experiment. The bioactivity profile of FREO in pre-inflamed human dermal fibroblasts had shown four different concentrations. These four concentrations are 0.003, 0.001, 0.00033, and 0.00011% of FREO. These FREO were initially tested for biological activity in the dermal fibroblasts. The highest concentration was the 0.003% of FREO. This concentration was further analyzed on the effect of RNA expression of 21,224 genes. The results had shown a robust effect of FREO on regulating human genes. This results in many genes being upregulated and many others being downregulated. Also in response to FREO, the level of a tissue remodeling biomarker and  collagen III had decreased. FREO has also slightly reduced the levels of IP-10 and ICAM-1. Both of them are important to the process of pro-inflammatory biomarkers. This has suggest it’s inflammatory potentials. Also FREO has dramatically lowered the level of  collagen III, which has likely improve healing by reducing the chance of scar formation or wound persistence. In conclusion, it has shown that the significant of anti-proliferative activity of FREO observed in this study may be important implications in skin and other cells.  

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