Gavin GrewalEric HollandRock RevolutionDecember 19, 2017Final Exam1. Punk created his own mobilization structure in his ethics. This ethic allowed the punk subculture to build a significant infrastructure of underground environments. In other words, social movements can be mobilized on the basis of social networks that are not explicitly political, such as friendship, family and neighborhood. Although this is not primarily directed at the mobilization of the movement, the ethics of punk play a decisive role in mobilizing resources and other organizational customs of the social movement. Culture, which, as a rule, considers only in terms of elementary logic in the new paradigm of social movements, can also become the defining organizations of the social movement and the mobilization of resources.As examples, “Rock Against Racism” (RAR) was formed in 1976 in response to the racist sentiments expressed by rock stars Eric Palella and David Bowie, who used fascist iconography. Responding to a concert in which Eric Clapton, that he wants to “keep Britain on white” and once again confirmed his support for Powell, the founders of RAR wrote letters to several British music magazines that spoke of their intention to form an anti-racist movement.2. In 1991, when Jen Smith, a college student and member of the little-known Bratmobile group, “called the girl to riots”, members of the punk band Bikini Kill have not yet met. Punk music, a subculture of basic rock music, “remained resolutely, with some notable exceptions, a boys’ club,” and women were justly disappointed with their exclusion from such an influential and unique form of expression. Many women, such as Jen Smith, were tired of their alleged roles as a “group, girlfriend or reserve singer”. Thus began what will be known to future generations, as the Riot Grrrl Revolution.Bikini Kill was the ones of “founding mothers” of the Riot Grrrl Revolution in the early nineties. They perceived “the greatest pride not only in individuality, but also in that they were exiles,” and allowed countless girls and women to pursue ways of creativity from which they had previously been excluded. 3. Back in the day, ASCAP (American Society of Composers) completely controlled the publication of music. Since it was based in New York, the publishing center for music and recordings was there as well., However, the monopoly was broken with the advent of BMI, and writers from literally everywhere could publish or record their music. ACAP owned all of the pop music of the time, so BMI took under consideration the rest of the music that was considered to be “inferior” by ACAP. Thus, BMI has created a huge catalog of music from all genres. Back in 1940s, the recording industry was under the strong hand of only a few large labels. RCA Victor, Decca and Columbia were able to dominate the market because they controlled all aspects of the industry, including retail outlets, manufacturing plants, distributors and recording studios. The most important factors in bringing them down were the formation of BMI (Broadcast Music Inc.) in 1940s and the Japanese invasion of US in 1941. The old 78 RPM recordings were made of heavy slate, similar to materials that needed binding. This was important in the compilation of that time period’s records. Shellac was used for this binding, but it was also used to make bullets. As war started Shellac was rationed. With Shellac hard to get, the main labels’ interests had to be redirected. The first music to be cut was the ethnic records that were only popular in certain regions of the country. This left a big opening for small labels to gain a foothold. Since most labels did not have a nationwide distribution, they could focus on single artists who were popular in their regions, thus opening ways to fame for local artists.4. By the mid-1970s, rock music had become a big business: millions of sales, massive street festivals and concerts, and a hierarchy of celebrities and stars. As music, punk’s original sound was not only loud, fast, and aggressive, but deliberately short and simple. This is the corresponding ethic of DIY, since all musicians with minimal technical skill could assemble their own bands and play music. Individual artists and groups could put their own particular twist onto their version of punk.It was also a serious uprising against aesthetic standards, programs by rock musicians of the 1970s, especially those who participated in the so-called “progressive rock”, which began to compose long and complex forms of music in pursuit of the title of the “Art.”5. In heavy metal, working-class consciousness in the context of deindustrialization is mediated by reification, which György Lukács defined as a metamorphosis in which “a relation between people takes on the character of a thing and thus acquires a ‘phantom objectivity.'” Under the capitalist mode of production, society’s creations appear to have a life of their own, as if they are forces of nature and are therefore timeless and immutable. Lukács traced reification back to Marx’s notion of commodity fetishism, in which exchange value reshapes social relations among people such that they “assume, in their eyes, the fantastic form of a relation between things.” Reification is therefore a consequence of capitalist societies in which people lose control over the production process and social relations are determined by economic forces that operate with mysterious objectivity, as suggested by the common metaphor of the “invisible hand” of the market. The products of human labor, as well as social activity in general, become alien to their producers and seem to acquire power over them. Lukács thus brilliantly reconstructed the young Marx’s concern with alienation, and he was also influenced by Max Weber’s theories of rationalization and bureaucracy as well as Georg Simmel’s studies of money and exchange. The common denominator among alienation, rationalization, and the money economy is the way people create social forces that then take on an objective form beyond their ability to control. The devil and other symbols of evil materialize within this context as powers of destruction that cannot be comprehended or influenced, much less stopped, by ordinary human beings. They are an expression of the irony that society has become a victim of social forces, “like the sorcerer, who is no longer able to control the powers of the nether world whom he has called up by his spells.” 6. Throughout the history of recorded music, advances in recording technology have had a dramatic impact on the practices of production that musicians and artists have employed. Recent developments in computer technology continue to alter the dynamics of music production. The World Wide Web allows independent and unsigned artists to take advantage of traditional methods of promotion such as mailing lists and word-ofmouth, and adapt them to the more efficient and extensive medium of the Web, as well as creating completely new marketing techniques specific to the Internet.Developments in digital compression formats such as MP3, as well as Liquid Audio, Microsoft Audio and Real Audio, have enabled files which combine high quality audio with small file size. This facilitates the transmission of such audio files over digital networks, allowing both download 92 Chapter Four and upload of audio files to and from a user’s local hard drive. Although this has encouraged many people to experiment with new ways of consuming and sharing music, it contains the kernel of a model for audio distribution which, if harnessed correctly, has the ability to completely alter the way in which record companies disseminate their product. The implication is that if a digital audio file can be electronically purchased and transmitted over a network, then stored and played back on a compliant consumer electronics device, then distribution could change from a resource-, labour-, and cost-intensive process of manufacture and delivery of physical goods, to a more efficient and cost-effective system of electronic delivery on demand. The world of online music is currently almost completely lacking in corporate power and influence, instead being comprised largely of independent producers promoting and disseminating their own music.7. A postmodern crisis of representation is apparent in myriad changes in social life, where it has become increasingly difficult to know where the sign/image/identity/simulation ends and the meaning/reality/self/object begins: art and architecture become a pastiche of recycled styles; identity and language become not simply the means but the ends of political struggle; philosophers and scientists reflect on the constructed nature of their claims to truth; literary theorists deconstruct intertextual discourses rather than uncover the meaning of the text; popular culture becomes ironically self-referential; and youth cultures create style from retro objects and fashion. The political economy of late capitalism is such that representations are more important and valuable than the objects they purport to represent, for today it is the swoosh or the golden arches, not the shoes or the burgers, that generate the commodity value.8. It’s important to remember that hip-hop is not just music. It’s a unique era of culture where fashion, art, music and language became deeply pitted with metaphors that became consistent, ubiquitous and global. Hip-hop is unplanned, it reflects common truths in societies. Hip-hop is represented across the media in several ways, from Favela Rio de Janeiro to the Court of England, the ghetto in New York, the slums of Ghana and the towers of Shanghai. It is a mode of expression, an uprising transmitted through the capture and transformation of cultural elements. It displays social issues and creates awareness. Some might say hip-hop is a movement. People take the messages that hip-hop creates and share it with the world in its different varieties of forms.9. In their common history of Rock’n’Roll and television could be regarded as pair of individuals who plainly destined to form a bond but was at odds with each other up until the wedding that was arranged by the MTV (Music TeleVision) at last brought them before the altar in 1981. From the very beginning, which in this case is marked with Elvis Presley, TV in the United States and Britain or tried taming career got a significant boost through the influence of the music’s unruly popularity ascension. As a matter of fact, Presley’s career got a significant boost thanks to his TV debut on the Dorsey Brothers’ Stage Show in 1956, an instance that proved the mutual attraction between the industries, as rock fans long perceived it. To further cement the notion it has to be added, that Presley’s ascent to nationwide stardom in the United States in 1956 owed a great deal to the fact that during his TV appearances as one of the two sons on The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet, Ricky (later Rick) Nelson and above all on The Ed Sullivan Show he began to perform rock-and-roll numbers regularly on the series. As a result of TV exposure, his career was boosted and his record sales grew.