George several State departments and arrived at the White

George Kennan, under the pseudonym X, wrote in 1947 the Long Telegram, which was considered the Bible of the Cold War because it created the doctrine of containment. The document, which ran through several State departments and arrived at the White House, became the main document for politicians in the Cold War since Truman, since the guidelines of the policy that arose during those years, the toughest, were drafted. of the bipolar system. The article has been published in Foreign Affairs translated into Spanish. So you can have a look here.George Kennan specialized in Russian culture and language in Riga, before being sent to the Moscow embassy for the first time in 33, when the USSR was recognized by the US. He returned in 44 as a senior adviser to the ambassador. Given his in-depth studies on the Russian press, language and culture, he saw himself with the strength to express his opinion by prophesying Soviet behavior in the following years.In February of the 46, Kennan received a telegram of the Department of State of the USA that said that the Soviets refused to be united to the IMF (International Monetary Fund) and to the BM (World Bank). Our protagonist wonders why the Soviets refused to participate in these international institutions and writes the famous Telegram Largo (which has 8009 words), explaining the reasons why the alliance was cracking. In July of that same year, Foreign Affairs magazine publishes the long version of the telegram, an article signed by a certain X, an identity that corresponds to Kennan, and entitled Sources of Soviet Conduct.The telegram analyzes Stalin’s speeches and Soviet policy since 1945. In short, Kennan said that anti-capitalist communism and its feeling of insecurity definitely led to a hostile policy with the West. The Stalinist dictatorship, enlightened in the dark world of Tsarist intrigue and accustomed to thinking essentially in terms of power politics, needed foreign enemies to justify its rule.For this reason, the Soviet Union would try to continue with its precise plan of action towards central and western Europe, helping the communist parties in those countries, and against the interests of the USA. In any case, Kennan did not propose concrete policies, but generalists: to act using force and not reason, since the Russians do not understand it.Kennan said that the United States had the mission to stop the Soviet Union, containing its expansive longings through long-term, patient and firm policies. According to Kissinger, the Long Telegram was the answer that politicians were looking for the question: what to do with the Russians? that so many headaches gave.And the answer is summed up in one word: containment. The aim was to contain the Soviet Union wherever it was to intervene, anywhere in the world. Since Kennan always spoke of the expansionist attitude of the Russians, US policy would be limited only to acting when the Soviets acted, in order to wait for external struggles to change the culture and internal politics of the USSR.These struggles that would change the Soviets would not only be supported by American military might, but also by the so-called soft power as defined by Joseph Nye Jr. Soft power, among other things, refers to the power that a nation has to make others follow it, using that power through culture, education, respect for other nations, or the vision of solidarity that the US has as saviors of the world and superior in the way of life of the rest of the planet. This is what Americans commonly call “being the beacon” of the rest of the nations.The telegram ended by stating that despite the danger of the communist dictatorship, the Soviet Union was still weaker than the West, which did maintain its cohesion and firmness, and that if it continued to maintain it, it would be able to influence the behavior of the USSR government. .


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