Introduction and promotion on the basis merit, distinction between

Introduction

Bureaucracy is the set of rules
and regulations placed to manage activities, generally in large organizations
and governments. It is characterized by a standardized structure that governs
the implementation of all activities performed within organizations. (Tierean
& Bratucu 2009). Hage (1980), described bureaucracy as the administrative structure and
set of regulations in place to control activities, usually in large
organizations and government. Its efficiency is a function of the environment
in which it operates.

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Historically, Max Weber is
the most important advocate of bureaucracy. He described it as technically
superior to all other forms of organization and hence crucial to large, complex
organizations Bendix (1960).

 

Max
Weber identified three types of authority which are charismatic authority,
traditional authority and rational authority which is the basis of bureaucracy.
He believed and emphasized that, the rational authority is the most ideal type
of authority whereby he considered it to be a more rational and efficient form
of organization. He further asserted that, a bureaucratic structured
organization is governed by principles which are as follows; there should be
continuity in conducting official business; formal rules and regulations should
be followed in managing the organizations, division of  labour, impersonality, professionalism (career
oriented), hierarchical structured organizations and formal selection of
employees. (Parsons 1960).

 

Litwak,
(1961) indicated that, impersonal social relations, appointment and promotion on the basis
merit, distinction between private and work lives, authority based in hierarchy
manner and specialization are the characteristics of bureaucracy.

This entails that, the concept of the Bureaucracy
Management Theory is highly related on how the Public Sector of Tanzania
managed. Today’s’ Public Sectors in Tanzania are clearly indicating the
applicability of this theory as it can be seen the specialization (doctors of
different specialization in public hospitals, public attorneys, public
relations officers, etc), division of labour (clear job descriptions),
hierarchy (top management to the lower level), etc. This model of management
was inherited from the colonial rule.

It is also important to know the meaning of
Public Sector. Where it can be termed as all government entities, agencies,
enterprises and any other forms of entities which are publically funded and are
either delivering some programmes in public are providing services or goods.
This mean, the main characteristic of the Public Sector is the ownership of the
government. Therefore, the government should be at the centre of it, whether it
is an open system or closed system of an organization.

Public Sector can be; a government itself
(state) example the United Republic of Tanzania Government; International owned
organizations example USAID owned and funded by the United State of America
Government; service providers organizations, example public schools, hospitals,
etc; business entities example airlines, etc.

Public Sector in Tanzania are Tanzania
Revenue Authority, Public Owned Schools like Mzumbe High School, health
facilities owned by government like Muhimbili National Hospital, Tanzania
Electricity Company, Air Tanzania Company Limited, etc. Some of these public
owned organizations are solely for business such as Air Tanzania Company
Limited and Others are for service provisions like public owned higher
education institutions such as Mzumbe University.

Application of Bureaucracy Management Theory in Public Sector/
Organization in Tanzania

 

It is obvious that, most
organizations are large and complex in nature, therefore the bureaucracy model
of management becomes very vital. Also for the purpose of maintain uniformity
and continuity in the management of public organizations, even the small
organizations are characterized by bureaucracy model. It is imperative
important to look into principles of the Bureaucracy Management Model Theory in
accordance to Daniel & Arthur (2009). This paper will derive the
applicability of the bureaucracy model in Tanzania public sector from the below
described principles.

 

Formal Authorities of the Managers

 

They described that, a
manager has the authority to hold subordinates accountable for their actions
and to take action or decision towards the actions of the subordinates in the
organization in accordance with the available resources and regulations. Also
managers are responsible for the maintenance of the smoothly coordination of
the day to day activities in the organization whereby they are supposed to
ensure employees are compensated in accordance to their positions. Managers are
also supposed to ensure that, selection and recruitment of the employees is
based on their experience and competence and also their position in an
organization is based on the rules and regulations of that certain organization.

 

The arrangement of the positions in the organization should be hierarchically

 

This aims to ensure that,
individuals in an organization know to whom they are supposed to report to and
who are supposed to report to them. This is the system in bureaucratic
organization whereby positions are ranked from top to the bottom of the
organization. The fundamental concept of this principle is that, all offices
are controlled and bottom level offices are controlled or supervised by top
office. Also this principle paves a way to the chain of command or
communication in management of the organization. To make it efficient and
effectively the shape of the hierarchically arranged position in the
organization is always of the pyramid shape. This ensures no one in the organization
report to many supervisors or bosses.

 

Specialization and Division of Labour

 

After recruiting employees
based on their competences and experiences, the employees are expected to positioned
in their areas of specialization or expertise and also to be provided with be a
written job descriptions which clearly indicates what are they supposed to do
and the what results are expected from them. This enables all the departments
in an organization to have the required skills and competence to avoid employees
to step out of what they are supposed to do and cause trouble. Also the tasks
and responsibilities assigned to an individual should not be transferred to
another individual in the same organization to avoid repetition of work.

 

Clearly defined rules and regulations

 

To achieve a certain
standard performance in an organization and maintenance of organization’s
culture, the organization is required to formulate well understandable rules
and regulations which will control or guide employees behaviour. This is one of
the core principles of the bureaucratic which emphasise that, management/ administrative
process in an organization is continuous and governed by official rules and
regulations. The rules and regulations in an organization are important in maintaining
uniformity and coordination of all individuals towards its achievement of the
stipulated goals. In the time where there is no clear rules and regulations,
the issue can be referred to top management for their necessary decision or
action which afterwards becomes the precedent for the future decision or action
on the similar issue. The important of the rules and regulations in an
organization is to provide stability, continuity and predictability of the
outcomes of a certain deed while performing work.

 

Appointment and promotion base on competency not sentiment

 

The important characteristic
of the bureaucracy system is that, relationship among individuals in an
organization is governed through the system of official authority and rules as
opposed to personal involvement, sentiments, and emotions. This entails that, always
decisions or actions should be governed rationally rather than personally. Impersonality
concept is not only dealing within the organization itself but also is dealing
with the relationship between the organizations itself and other organization
(external environment).

 

This paper has focused on
the principles of Bureaucracy Management Theory to conceptualize the effectiveness
of Bureaucracy Management Theory in Public Sector in Tanzania. It has been
stipulated as follows:-

 

Through
hierarchy formation of the offices or positions, the public organizations in
Tanzania have a very clear chain of command from high to low level which allows
employees to be ranked in accordance with the degree of authority within a
particular organization. In most organization for example different Ministries,
which are led by the Ministers followed by Permanent Secretaries thereafter
Deputy Permanent Secretaries then Head of Departments and Units to the lower
positions. Therefore, this system clearly indicates who is supposed to report
to whom and make executions of the daily routines tasks and duties for
employees to go smoothly due to the systematic flow of information and
communication in general. The well hierarchical structured public organization can
lead to increasing efficiency and predictability outcomes due to the tendency
of employees/ officials of being bounded to follow the chain of command etc. Therefore
the administration process becomes easy.  

 

The
implementation of day to day activities of the government can be traced into
the government organs in accordance to the United Republic of Tanzania. These
organs are Executive, Legislature and Judiciary even though separation of power
and check and balance of these three independent organs is still a debate. All
of these organs have are characterized by hierarchical structures; the
following is the hierarchy structure of the executive organ.

i.                   
The President of the
United Republic of Tanzania

ii.                 
The Vice President of
the United Republic of Tanzania

iii.               
The President of
Zanzibar

iv.               
The Prime Minister of
the United Republic of Tanzania

v.                 
The Cabinet Ministers
of the United Republic of Tanzania

 

The application of bureaucratic structure in an
organization requires employees/ officials
to be hired on regard to their qualifications and expertise established by
formal education/ training one attained. In this method, the hiring and
promotion procedures are based on merit and technical competence/ expertise in
which the public organizations are now attaining precise personnel on right
positions.  Public organizations now are advertizing
the vacancies openly, receive and process all the applications at least fairly.
For example the Government of Tanzania has established Public Services
Recruitment under the President’s Office Management of Public Services and Good
Governance. This public organization has been given mandatory to selected employees
on the basis of technical qualifications on behalf of other public sectors in the
country. This assists in putting right persons on right jobs and lead to best
utilization of human resources.

 

Furthermore, the division of labour clearly defines
the authorities and roles of each employees/ officials
in the organization due to their specialization. In public organizations,
employees have clear specified duties and responsibilities which are well
indicated in their job descriptions in their respective departments/ divisions.
It is very easy to monitor and supervise employees in the organization which
have well established division of labour. In public institution such as hospitals
like Muhimbili National Hospital, there are different employees with different
specialty like doctors, technicians, office attendants, accountants, etc who are
performing different tasks in different departments or divisions, that are,
doctors, technicians, accountants, administrators, etc. Division of labor
always led to the achievement of the organization goals and leaves the
employees satisfied.

 

Bureaucratic
structure emphasize on career development orientation. Employments in the public organizations are careers for officials
and their works is rewarded by prospects of career advancement whereas promotion
is granted according to seniority and or achievement. After a probation period,
the employees are mostly given a permanent and pensionable contract which
protects the employee from unjustifiable dismissal. Career development in
public organizations is highly promoted whereas the organizations are providing
their employees full time scholarships to pursue further studies within the
country or even abroad in accordance with the need and availability of fund. In
accordance to government directives, the public servants who have been sponsored
for studies are compelled to work for the government or that certain office for
the period of not less than two years after completion of the studies.

 

 

Strict rules,
regulations and procedures in performing duties are adhered by all employees/
officials in public organizations in the country. Following rules and
procedures result to consistency of performance and decision making due to the
consistency behavior of the employees/ officials as it can be witnessed in the
most if not all public organizations in the country. With Client Service
Charter in public sectors offices in Tanzania enable customers of public
services to be treated equal and fairly in accordance to requirements and
procedures of deliverance of a particular service. Example when a citizen
approach the Immigration Services Department under the Ministry of Home Affairs
to apply for the travelling document are treated well even though the services
might be delayed due to various reasons. Through this no one who will be
treated in bias due to relationship he/ she is having with any official/
employee in a certain institution. For example if the criteria has been set for
an individual to acquire an education load from the High Learning Students Loan
Board, all the applications must be processed fairly and no priorities will be
given due to who know who. Another example of the application of rules and
regulations in public organization is adherence to the Public Services Standing
Order of 2009 which is the guiding principle of all public servants. Also the
behavior of the public servant are controlled through Code of Ethics and
Conducts for Public Service in Tanzania

 

Bureaucratic structure is characterized by impersonality
in Tanzania Public Organizations.  The
system and other control mechanisms are not
based in impersonal. When an official/ employee leave the organization
regardless of his/ her rank the organization will stand firm. This method
emphasizes and encourages the organizations to have a very comprehensive and
effectively succession plans particularly to the highest rank positions whereby
when a low rank or high official retire/ sanctioned/ leave the office another
official (low/ high rank) occupies that position and performance continue
without withholding. When application of bureaucracy succeeded the personalities
and personal preferences will be avoided.

 

The criticism of the
application of bureaucracy management theory in management of the public
organizations

 

The
application of the bureaucracy model sometimes termed as red tape by its
criticizers due to the adherence of the placed way of doing business. Olsen, J.
P. (2008) described bureaucracy structure in general as big, powerful,
hierarchical, rule bound, indifferent  
to   results,   inefficient,   lazy,  
incompetent, wasteful, inflexible, unaccountable, inhumane, and harmful
for democracy and individual freedom. Some of his criticism on bureaucracy can
also be traced back in the management of public sector in Tanzania through
bureaucracy model like laziness and rigidity of these complex public organizations.

 

Daneshfard
& Aboalmaali (2016) described bureaucratic approaches may lead to
postponement of the vital decisions or actions due to the slow pace of doing
things. Also rigidity due to the strictly following of procedures, rules and
regulations of the bureaucratic organizations can reduce  efficiency 
whereas employees might   make
refer some issues  to  high 
officials for decision making  
procedures   while the matter can
be handled by them hence deny their responsibility.

 

This
also can be traced into public organizations where the most power of making
decision is vested to the top management, the lower level employees. For
example recently the Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Home Affairs Tanzania
warned to de register the religious institutions which are conduct their
business as opposed to their established constitution.  This matter could have been handled by the
Director for Legal Services in the Ministry or the announcement to the public could
have been done by the Officer in Charge of the Government Communication in that
ministry instead of the top boss. Recently the President of the United Republic
of Tanzania sworn the Deputy Minister for Ministry of Energy, he was quoted
complaining that, the regulations which guides the new Mining Act were not
signed and directed the Minister for Constitution and Legal Affairs to sign
those regulations on behalf of the Minister for Minerals who was reported to be
out of office on that moment for health issues. This means the regulations were
not signed because the Minister was not around, if the was a possibility of
delegate or vest that power to the Permanent Secretary the matter could have
been solved without any delay.

 

In
the management of the bureaucratic organizations, official   activities  
of   the   organization   are  
being performed in a written form. Execution of duties based on the
paper work can lead to waste of time 
and  human  resources 
along  with  slowing 
the  pace  of taking actions or decisions and  result 
in  other  problems even for a small matter.  This is highly witnessed in the government
institutions for example a wounded or injured patient might not get treatment
or even first aid at the hospital without presenting the Police Form No. 3
famously as PF3 from Police Station, this can result to worsening the matter or
even unavoidable deaths.

 

The
impersonal character in bureaucracy is a direct criticism to nepotism which is
not e new phenomenon in public organizations. 
The idea of promoting and choosing employees based on their competence
has / had loopholes in the most of the public organizations in Tanzania.  In previous years, there were speculations in
social medias and even media that the top leaders of the country are place
their family members and friends into prominent public organizations in
Tanzania such as Bank of Tanzania and Tanzania Revenue Authority. Nepotism  is 
an  issue  which 
can  be  observed 
in  many organizations.

 

 

 

 

Conclusion

 

The
government cannot exist without the bureaucracy model due to its vital
importance in making sure things are running smoothly in a prescribed way. The
large organizations owned by public even if their nature is of profit oriented
cannot be managed in ad hoc basis; there must be fundamental principles of
procedures, rule and regulations which will enable individuals in organization
to be held accountable for their own actions instead of the generally
organization or departments. Critics may consider bureaucratic structures as
ineffective but the use of it especial in large organization is inevitable. The
large organization cannot be easily managed if there are no clear systems of
rules and regulations, specialization and chain of command. Even the smaller
organizations need to have bureaucracy structure, whereby it will be easy to
manage the employees when the organization expands because the foundation
structure will be already in place.

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