arises mainly from funding of long-term assets by short-term liabilities,
thereby making the liabilities subject to rollover or refinancing risk.
Liquidity Risk of a bank is inability to meet its obligations when they become
due without incurring improper losses. It may even give rise to legal action
and reputation risk. When bank dealing in electronic money face interest rate
risk because of adverse movements in interest rates. The liquidity risk in
banks may be of the following types, funding risk, time risk, call risk.
is the criminal activity or a crime that involves the internet a computer system
or technology. It can include 1) identity theft, 2) phishing schemes, 3) theft
of corporate funds, assets, and computer resources, 4) disclosure,
modification, or destruction of personally identification information or proprietary
information, 5) abuse of compeer resources for unauthorised purpose and 6)
causing damage to networks and equipment.
and perpetrators of cyber-crime is often a challenges for law enforcement
because access to a company’s computer system can occur in many different ways
by many different people. The damage from a single incident can affect many
different individuals and entities as well. Those crime people include, 1)
criminal groups that commit theft, online fraud etc. 2) hackers who may or may
not be politically motivated. 3) disgruntled insiders. 4) bot-net operators who
use network remotely controlled systems to coordinate attacks. 5) nations and
agencies of nations that use cyber tools as part of their espionage activities.
6) terrorists who seeks to destroy the national security, weaken the economy,
and to damage public morale and confidence.
And these threats come from without and within. So we can say that the
multifaceted problems require multifaceted solutions. Companies cannot depend
on the federal government to protect their interests in this area. The managers
will continue to be called on for the development of strategies to control and
prevent the so called treat from different parts of the people and the nations.
So organisations are under assault from without and within and they must
prepare accordingly. (sam advanced management journal, vol 81, no 2 2016,
threat and challenges of cyber-crime and responses by c alexander hewes jr. pg.