Medium of Instruction
is the basic strength of any nation. The role of education in the modern age
has been changed. Previously, it was
considered a tool for human development but today it plays a major role in
development of every field like politics, economics, social and human resources
& Gondal, 2017).
We can say it serves as the backbone to the countries who wish to
prosper in all aspects. In order to have good education it is necessary to have
a good medium of instruction (MOI). This medium helps the teachers to
accomplish their targets and nurture the minds of the youngsters to make them
useful citizens of the society (Muhammad, 2009).
is the language used by the teacher for teaching any content in any classroom.
Language, in this way, plays central role in all teaching and learning
processes because of being major means of knowledge and communication (Ahmed,
2011, Mahmood & Gondal, 2017). There are usually more than one languages
spoken and used in a country. Most of the times, the official language or some
other main language, is not used as medium of instruction (Ahmad, Zarif &
MOI has a significant importance in educational policy.
It is made to make the nation united but it becomes a tool of political
subjugation of minorities. There is diversity in the medium of instruction in
Pakistan. Elite and armed forces run educational institutes which use English
as a medium of instruction. State educational institutes use Urdu as a medium
of instruction though the course books and medium of examination are English
and Madrassas use Urdu and Arabic as a medium of examination (Rahman, 2010b).
has always been a debatable issue in Pakistan because of the presence of
multiple languages and cultural diversity (Farooqi, Islam & Hussain 2016).
There are five native languages used here i.e. Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi, Saraiki
and Baluchi (Rahman, 1997). Urdu is on one
hand language of minority and on the other hand it is also national language.
English is used as a language of power and as official language. Many local languages are also used as medium
of instruction in institutes along with the national language (Coleman, 2010).
March 2009, the Government of Punjab made a move by introducing English as the
medium of instruction for the subjects of mathematics, science and computer
science in all Punjab’s public schools from Grades 1 to 12. Later in February
2014 the policy was amended a bit and Urdu was reinstated as medium of
instruction Grade 1 to 3 and from English has to start as medium of instruction
from 4th grade.
shift to EMI was primarily based on the desire to maximize the potential of
young people, helping them develop their skills and knowledge in an
increasingly competitive globalized economy. Research studies in many countries
have indicated that a high level of English language
skills can lead to an increase in economic opportunities and income levels.
GoP’s argument in support of the EMI policy is founded on the assumption that
teaching students in English from the primary level will facilitate a smoother
transition to secondary schooling, leading to higher levels of comprehension
and ‘use’ of subject knowledge. The teaching and mastery of Urdu (as well as
Punjabi, and other vernacular languages) is of great importance, but at the
same time it is also clear that English is needed to enable young people to
develop the kind of skills which can open up opportunities to them for further
study and for work.
& Gondal (2017) the medium of instruction plays
key role in the processes of teaching and learning. It may play role of
connection between teacher and the students however it can also become obstacle
between them in some cases. They further assert that regional and native
languages play an important role for the socialization and development of an
individual. These languages are used in home and neighborhood and give identity
to its users because they closely relate to their culture and social
Islam & Hussain (2016) found out in their study that English as medium of
instruction had negative effect on motivation of students for learning. They
suggested that Urdu should be used as medium of instruction for secondary level
Shaheen & Tariq (2012)
conducted a research in Punjab University to observe the effect of change in
medium of instruction on students. Their study revealed that medium of
instruction is one of the factors that influence academic achievement of
students. Other things that have effect on performance of the students are
their level of satisfaction, their proficiency of English language and the role
that the teachers play.
literature determines a number of significant EMI problems defending teachers, consisting
of teachers’ dialect abilities, students’ effectiveness, appropriate methods,
and insufficient information. Initially, teachers are known to experience linguistic
problems. Vinke et al. (1998), for example, survey that EMI added to higher
expectations at the teaching abilities of content material lecturers’ in the Netherlands:
the teachers employed slow presentation and less flexibility in working with
surprising incidents and different problems in language usage.
people had complexity in conveying themselves efficiently, specifically in paraphrasing,
checking for phrases, and improvement statements. Many of these factors potentially
effect in damaging results on students’ trying to learn, such as less content
protection and expertise loss. Likewise, Smith (2004, as cited in Coleman,
2006) recognizes 15 general complications that Western tertiary EMI programs
are struggling with, for example, the demand to improve dialect skills for local
students and associates and the resource of proficient English-speaking content
teachers. Shohamy (2012) echoes all these issues in the circumstance of Israel:
“It is frequently the case that educational teachers will possess high knowledge
in a single content areas , not the other language” (p. 203).
further obstacle for EMI educators is a look for successful pedagogy. Wilkinson
(2005) discovered that Dutch content lecturers had to spend more time using
EMI; the conversation evolved into “poorer” as a final result of their
particular weaker ability to use the instructional language orally, which
clearly lowered “the quality of teaching” (n.p.). His studies recommend that
EMI may lead to effective content material understanding the concepts of
instructional methods are designed, more period is given, and more of the program
is provided in EMI. Nevertheless, the appropriateness of ‘codes witching’ in
EMI is still questionable. When conversation in English breaks down, teachers
may require it for approved the fact that the mother tongue can offer a substitute
for understanding the concepts. Kyeyune (2010), however, facts that this alternative
is pedagogically “incorrect” mainly because it breaks down “to assist in the development
of learners’ educational literacies” (p. 179). Unsupportive proof for
codeswitching is likewise found in additional research (Ibrahim, 2001; Mohamed,
2013; Shohamy, 2012). In reality, Ball and Lindsay (2012), in a recent analysis
with Spanish teachers, advise that linguistic and pedagogic competences? are
related and that pedagogical proficiency is more important to assist in
students’ gaining knowledge. The qualified materials on EMI pedagogy does
indeed not give clear advice on the virtually all suitable teaching methods to
make up language problems.
in African and Asian parts of the world increase the problems to students’ language
capabilities (Byun et al., 2011; Kyeyune, 2010; Huong, 2010; Tsuneyoshi, 2005Manh, 2012; ). Kyeyune
(2010), for case in point, watching classroom interactions, reviews the
depressing conversation failures in Ugandan classrooms considering that of
students’ poor English effectiveness. He writes: “Teachers consequently believe
their learners to be smooth in the words when they are actually not” (p.175). Sierra
(2012a) and Doiz, Lasagabaster, and Ibrahim (2001) reducing the idea of students’ linguistic
skills right into Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) and
Intellectual Academic Language Proficiency (CALP), structured on Cummins’
even every time students’ social conversation is successful, they may possibly
have difficulty with EMI. The absolute challenge leading to implementational
troubles is limited resources (Dang et al., 2013; Huong, 2010; Manh, 2012).
Baldauf, Kaplan, Kamwangamalu, and Bryant (2011), analyzing many Asian
countries’ language guidelines, determine the fact that “financing for typical
programmes, the training of teachers and cash for textbooks are all
insufficient” (p. 318).
brief, teachers face diverse difficulties in using EMI.