Major eating. These individual with BED often shows sign

              Major
changes had been made in the 2013 released Diagnostic Statistical and Manual
for Mental Disorder 5th edition (DSM-5). Binge eating disorder (BED)
is now being categorized as an eating disorder in DMS-5. In DMS-IV that was
published in 1994, binge eating disorder was only listed in Appendix B and had
to be diagnosed with the non-specific “EDNOS” (Eating Disorder Not Otherwise
Specified).  According to NEDA (National
Eating Disorder Association) over 1000 research papers have been published that
support the idea that BED is a specific diagnosis that has validity and
consistency (NEDA,2016). Although the changes include the feeding and eating
disorders such as: bulimia, anorexia and binge eating disorder, I have chosen
to write about binge eating disorder (BED).  BED has couple of key diagnostic features that
can’t be ignored. These diagnostic features will be thoroughly explained in the
following paragraphs. Furthermore, I will discuss the role society plays in this
stressful eating disorder as well as the life threatening consequences on the
individual’s health. The American Psychiatric Association (APA) defined binge
eating disorder as a recurring episode of eating significantly more food in a
short period of time than a normal person would do in normal circumstances with
episode marked by feelings of lack of control. The risk and prognostic factors
are genetic and physiological. Binge-eating disorder appears to run in the
family, which may reflect addictive genetic influences (American Psychiatric Association,
2013).

         The
BED diagnostic features are serious. They are life-threatening and can even
lead to death. The diagnostic features that are listed in DMS-5 are: The episode
of BED is recurrent and persistent. The patient eats much more rapidly until
uncomfortable full. People who are diagnosed with BED tend to eat large amount
of food even when not physically hungry .They eat alone out of embarrassment of
how much one is eating. These individual with BED often shows sign and symptoms
of depression, guilt and they are disgusted with one self. (APA, 2013) Although
the diagnosis of Bed differs from that of bulimia nervosa, they have the
recurrent binge eating in common. Unlike individuals with bulimia, there is no
purging of the food in individuals with BED. (American Psychiatric Association,
2013). According to NEDA (National Eating Disorder Association), binge eating
disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder in the United States of
America. It’s most common in women (3.5%) that are in their early adulthood and
men (2%) that are in their midlife. Binge eating is also seen in adolescence
(up to 1.6%).(NEDA,2016). Binge eating disorder is also culture-related. It
occurs in most industrialized countries, including the United States, Canada,
many European countries, Australia and New Zealand. In the US, it comparable
appears in non-Latino White, Asians, Latinos and African Americans.(APA,2013)

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        Society plays a big role in the eating
disorders we see in young girls, boys and also adults. Society influences the
way one prefer to look. From a very young age girls are being told that looks
matter and that they should look a certain way to be accepted by society. The
diet commercials on TV are spending countless hours to tell viewers to lose
weight and that thin is more beautiful. People with binge eating disorder, who
are overweight, are acutely aware of their body shape and appearance and berate
their self after eating. Often enough overweight and obese people are being
portrait as lazy. Thin and pumped up bodies are being portrait as successful. The
constant images of thinness on TV and magazines can worsen their binge eating. Over
and over again news papers and magazine expose the notion that losing weight by
the use of a certain diet plan is going to make us happier. Although those diet
plans don’t work for many, yet our society continues to buy into the idea that
they do. Recent studies indicated that social media, such as facebook also
influence the risk of eating disorders.  According to a CNN report, in two recent studies,
researchers at Florida State University explored whether eating disorders are linked
to social media.  In the first research, 960
college women completed a self-reported eating disorder screening assessment.
They also answered a series of questions about their facebook use. A small but
significant correlation was found between facebook use and disordered eating.
In the second study, 84 women from the first study were divided into two
groups. One group was instructed to use facebook as they typical would in 20
minutes. The other group was told to research an ocelot, a rainforest cat, on
Wikipedia and YouTube. Unsurprisingly, the women who spent 20 minutes on
facebook reported greater body dissatisfaction than the ones that look at cute
Cats. (Mysko, 2014).

        The negative influences that social media and
society have on the eating habits on the most vulnerable (girls and women) on eating
disorders (BED included) can be life threatening and also fatal. American
Psychiatric Association (APA) has listed functional consequences of
Binge-Eating Disorders (BED) in the DSM-5. These include: social role
adjustment problems, impaired health-related quality of life and life
satisfaction, increase medical morbidity and mortality, and associated
increased health care utilization compared with body mass index (BMI)-matched
control subject. It may also be associated with an increase risk for weight
gain and the development of obesity (APA, 2013).  Some of us eat too much at the Thanksgiving-,
Christmas dinner table or at a party. But we lose that extra weight that was
gained in no time. People with BED has problem losing that extra weight that is
caused by BED. Individuals with BED overeat while feeling out of control and
powerless to stop. They lose confident in their ability to control the amount
of food consumed. This lack of control will have a profile impact on the
patient’s life such as: his/her school, career, and relationships with family
and friends. Co-occurring disorders such as depression, loneness, anxiety,
bipolar and substance abuse can trigger more frequent and severe binge. Trying
to diet without professional assistance will worsen the binge eating. In the
book, A Guide To Ending Compulsive Eating,
the author , who also suffered  from this
disorders for years , explains how she went on every diet she had  heard 
of and read about. She spent 3 weeks losing 10 pound  on Weigh Watcher, Tillman’s, Aitkin’s and a
couple of other diet plans, just to gain it back in four days (Roth,1989). Unlike
individuals with bulimia nervosa, individuals with binge-eating disorder
typically do not show marked or sustained dietary restriction designed to
influence body weight and dieting (APA,2013) .Like all other eating disorder, BED
is a very serious medical disease. The overweight and obese patient can end up
with other health complications such as: high cholesterol, hypertension,
diabetes and other heart diseases. These complications can be irreversible and
can lead to death. According to the National Eating Disorder Association (NEDA),
Crow and colleagues studied 1.885 individuals with anorexia nervosa, bulimia
and BED over 8 to 25 years. They used a computerized record linkage to the National
Death Index. It showed that the mortality rate of BED is higher than that of
anorexia and bulimia. The mortality rate of bulimia is 3.9%, anorexia is 4, 0% and
BED is 5.2%. The reason for death includes suicide, substances abuse,
starvation (individuals with anorexia) and “natural” death such as cancer. (Kaye,
2016)

       Although binge eating disorder is a very
serious and sometimes fatal, it’s also treatable. According to the DSM-5,
binge-eating disorder also differs from bulimia nervosa in terms of response to
treatment. Rates of improvement are consistent higher among individuals with
binge-eating disorder than those with bulimia nervosa (APA, 2013). People with
BED should be encouraged to seek professional help. The reason for treatment of
BED is to reduce the binge eating and ultimately to lose weight. The treatment
will help the BED patient to have control over his/her eating habits. According
to Mayo Clinic, treatments of BED include: Psychotherapy, medications, and
behavior weight-loss programs. The first psychotherapy is cognitive behavioral therapy
(CBT), which teaches the patient how to deal with the underlying causes of BED.
Interpersonal psychotherapy is the second possible treatment for this disorder.
The therapist focuses on the relationship with others. The goal is to improve
the interpersonal skills between family, friends and coworkers. The third
psychotherapy is the dialectical behavior therapy. The patient will learn about
behavior skill, how to tolerate stress, emotion regulation and relationship
improvement. BED is also treatable with anti-depressant (SSRI’s), and
anticonvulsant topiramate. Behavior Weight-Loss programs may be very effective
to the individual with BED. This kind of treatment is recommended only when the
binge eating is fully treated, because dieting without professional assistance
may trigger more binge eating. The Behavior Weight loss program also teaches
healthy eating habits and healthy nutrition. Patients should stick to the treatment
if they want help. (Mayo Clinic, 2016)

      In Summary, the diagnostic features of
this stressful eating disorder were discussed. We also saw how social media and
society can influence one’s self esteem and worsen the binge-eating in the individual.
The consequences of binge-eating are life threatening and can be fatal if the
individual doesn’t seek professional help in time. Although this disorder can
be harmful to the individual’s health or even causes death, this disorder can
be treated. There are many treatment centers all over the Unites States, including
Mayo Clinic, where individuals with BED can get professional help.

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