Motherboard BIOS comes pre-installed on each motherboard. SATA hard


The motherboard is a PCB
that is found in all computers. The motherboard allows communication through
different parts of a computer, like the Central processing unit and the memory.
The Motherboard is also used to connect other components and peripherals. The
motherboard receives power directly from the Power supply and allows many
things to be directly connected to it such as the CPU, RAM, dedicated graphics
card and M.2 NVMe Solid state drives. There are other things that are inputted
into the motherboard with connectors like hard drives and solid-state drives.

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A Processor or CPU (Central Processing
Unit) is a part of a computer that carries out instructions from a computer
programs. Processors get instructions from programs to-do and the processor
does them by performing basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output
operations. There are many different parts to a CPU to main part is the
arithmetic logic unit or ALU which performs arithmetic and logic operations.


The BIOS or (Basic Input/ Output System) is
a non-volatile firmware used to perform various tasks to hardware during the
bootup of a computer. You can do many different things in the BIOS like
changing the fan speed of certain components in your computer. Overclocking
various parts of your computer and changing the boot settings of your computer
for things like installing new operating systems. The BIOS comes pre-installed
on each motherboard.

hard drive controller modes

SATA is a computer bus interface that
connects multiple different bus adapters and mass storage devices together such
as hard drives, optical drives and solid-state drives. There are many different
advantages of using SATA compared to older methods. Some of the advantages of
having SATA is that it has reduced cable size and cost.

SATA has many different controller modes
like (IDE, RAID and AHCI)

Another controller mode that SATA hard
drive has is RAID. Raid stands for Redundant Array of Independent Disks. RAID
is technology that combines multiple physical hard drives or storage devices
together in a logical way to provide data redundancy, performance improve or
both. There are many different levels of raid which as the level increases the
amount of hard drives needed increases and the security of the data increases.
The different layers have different ways of storing the data and distributing
the data across the hard drives.

AHCI or Advanced Host controller interface
is a technical standard that was made by intel that requires the operation of
SATA host bus adapters in a non-implementation-specific manner which transfers data
between host system memory and attached storage devices



Memory – ROM

ROM is a type of non-volatile memory. It is
extremely hard to modify data that is stored in the ROM, so it is mainly used
to store firmware on. Most firmware that is stored on the ROM relates to some
type of hardware that is likely to have frequent updates.


Computer ports are ports on the computer
that are used to connect different peripherals to. That either work as an
input/output device or allow another computer to interact with it. There most
common uses for a computer port is using your monitor.

Cards – Graphic Card

Specialised card are usually graphics or
video cards which is an expansion card connected to the motherboard. The video
card generates many images to be displayed on the monitor. Inside of the video
card there is a graphical processing unit or GPU. Video cards are not limited
to simple image output which is why sometimes people buy dedicated video cards
which takes stress off the CPU.


Hard drives are non-volatile storage
meaning that they can store data even when turned off. Hard drives are storage
devices that stores data magnetically. The hard drive uses multiple
magnetically coated disks that rotate around as magnetic heads read and write
data to them. Data is stored in a random-access manner meaning that parts of
data can be stored anywhere on the hard drive and can be retrieved.


A power supply or PSU is the main component
of the computer as it allows it to have power to run. It does this by
converting power from the mains (in AC) to low voltage DC power that is able to
power internal components in the machine.


Peripherals are devices on a computer that
are either an INPUT device which allows the user to input information to the
computer or an output device which allows the computer to display information
to the computer. There are some peripherals that are both input and output
devices such as touch screens on a computer. Some examples of input devices are
devices like a computer mouse, a keyboard and a microphone. Some examples of
output devices are things like a monitor, speakers and printers.


Storage on a computer is used to store
data. Some storage devices are volatile meaning that if the computer is powered
off all data that is stored on that device is lost whereas some devices are
non-volatile meaning that data stored on the device is not lost when powered

Pair Cables

Twisted pair cables are a method of cabling
in which two conductors of a single circuit are twisted together so that the
electromagnetic interference from external sources is stopped. The two
different conductors carry opposite signals and the destination detects the
different between the two. There are a lot of advantages and disadvantages of
using Twisted Pair cables. One of the disadvantages of using Twisted Pair
Cables is that the casing of the cable is relatively thin meaning that is can
easily be damaged and doesn’t have a second insulator like other cables. Some
of the advantages of using Twisted pair cables is that they are very flexible
meaning that they are easy to work with.


Windows 10


Windows also has an inbuilt anti-virus
called Windows defender which includes real time protection. Windows 10 also
has another inbuilt program called firewall which provides packet filtering and
monitors and controls the outgoing network traffic. The firewall also lets the
user set up specific policy’s and determines which networks and trust and are


Windows 10 has lots of machine management
programs like task manager, which allows the user to view things about their
computer. Windows also automatically downloads new updates to keep you up to
date with new updates.


Windows 10 manages peripherals by
automatically updating the drivers for the devices and also allowing you to
change settings within the device like changing the resolution of a monitor or
changing the DPI of a mouse.


Windows has an inbuilt program called file
explorer which allows you to easily move through file directories through a GUI
and allows you to easily move files from different folders, delete and create


to customise

Windows 10 allows the user to customise
many things like the desktop background, the colour of the task bar and window
bars. Windows 10 also allows you to use custom fonts. You can also change things
like the start-up background.


Windows allows security like biometric
authentication by allowing the user to use face recognition and iris scans to
unlock their device instead of having to enter their passwords. Windows 10
stores the passwords of the users locally and uses asymmetric encryption.
Windows 10 allows users to set up policies for automatic encryption of sensitive


Mac OS


Mac OS has many different security
features. One security feature is sandboxing. Sandboxing protects the
components of your computer and your information by isolating apps from
critical components of your computer. This means even if your computer does get
compromised your computer and data can’t get damaged. Mac OS also has
protection against phishing websites. Safari can detect if a website is fake
and is trying to get your personal information and blocks the site.


Mac OS has its own file management program
called Apple File System or APFS. It is made to make things like creating,
deleting and duplicating files much easier. It has a built in encryption system
with provides crash safe protections and data backup on the go.




Mac OS has similar Peripheral Management as
Windows as it automatically installs new drivers for devices plugged into the
computer and also allows the user to control certain settings for the devices.
But unlike windows most Mac devices needed to be bought exclusively for the


to customise

Unlike widows the Mac OS is very limited on
what you can do to customise it unless you download additional programs from
the internet. If you were to download programs from the internet you could
download customizable skins for the software which allows you to change things like
icon colours and skins.



Software –

Utility software is software that usually
comes with the operating system. The software usually helps maintain, analyse configure
or optimise the computer. Although the utility software often comes
preinstalled with the software it is not considered part of the operating
system as there are many different alternatives online that users usually


Windows 10

Some examples of utility software that comes
with windows 10 is software like





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