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‘Dynamic equivalence and formal equivalence are two dissimilar translation techniques used to achieve differing levels of literalness between the original and target languages of text’. ‘Formal equivalence tends to emphasise fidelity to lexical details and grammatical structure of the original language, whereas dynamic equivalence tends to employ a more natural rendering but with less literal accuracy’. When it comes to photography and a photographs interpretation, I will be looking at dyanmic equivalence. This might be transposed into thinking about photography in terms of the relationship between its representation of the real and its evocation of sensations generated by the real. 
The concept of equivalence in photography was claimed and named by Alfred Steiglitz in the 1920’s. Equivalents being the name of a series of photographs of clouds by Steiglitz made between 1925 and 1934, widely recognised as the first photographs intended to free their subject matter from literal interpretation. This concept has been continued and expanded on by others, most notably Aaron Siskind and Minor White. Minor White described equivalence as ‘a function, an experience, not a thing’ in which any photograph ‘might function as an equivalent to someone, sometime, someplace’. 
If indiviual viewers realise that what they see in a picture corresponds to something within themselves – that is, the photograph mirrors something in them – then their experience is, in terms of this theory, one of ‘equivalence’. White suggests that equivalence relates to what goes on in  viewers minds as they look at a photograph that arouses them a particular sense of correspondance to something that they know about themselves.
Landscape photographers are able to generate their own worlds, creating poetic logic from populated topographies rather than seeking a direct correspondance between the photographic image and the depicted landscape.

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