Soil days submerged technique is used extensively(6) There are

Soil is complex and nutrient rich
medium and an ideal habitate for many microorganisms, but many biochemical
factors of soil effects the growth and survival of microbes as well as
availability of nutrients i.e. change in soil pH effects the microbial
community. Microbial community in healthy soil play a key role in prevention of
plant diseases and also promote plant growth.(3) Soil microorganisms also regulate
the fertility of soil  and cycling of
nutrients (3) Bacillus, Agromyces, Micromonospora, Pseudonocardia, Acremonium, Lysobacter, Mesorhizobium, Microvirga, Bradyrhizobium, Acremonium and Chaetomium
are the beneficial microbes which sre present in healthy soil.(3)

Enzymes
are protein in nature. They are biocatalyst and play their role in the
enhancement of biochemical and metabolic reactions.(5)(13)(17) They may be
metabolic, hydrolyzing, oxidizing or reducing(6). Enzymes can be extracted from
different sources like plants, animals and microorganisms.(4). Each strain of
organisms can produce variety of enzymes, but the amount of individual enzyme
produced, may vary with each specie and strain of same species.(6) Thus for the
commercial enzyme production, selection of strain that is able to produce the
desirable enzyme in high concentration is the main target(6). Initially surface
culture methods were used for the production of commercial enzymes but now a
days submerged technique is used extensively(6) There are mainly 3000
extracellular enzymes which can degrade natural polymers such as
starch,proteins, lipids, pectins and cellulose.(9)  Among all the enzymes, protease is the
dominant one having 60% sale worldwide.(13). Amylase and cellulose are second
most important enzymes.(2)

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Microorganisms
are gaining importance for the production of 
industrially important enzymes. They are biochemically more diverse and
enzyme concentration can be easily increased by alterations in environment and genetics.
Thats why the enzymes isolated from eukaryotes are now replaced by microbial
enzymes.

For
the extraction of enzymes, microorganisms are preferred because of their rapid
growth, less space requirement and they can be cultured in latge quantities.(1)(4)(5)(7).
Microbial enzymes are more diverse and stable than any other source of enzyme..(2)(4)(5)
(7).  We can also modify the microbial
enzymes to fulfill our desired properties by genetic engineering as microbes
are easy to maneuvered.(1)(5) (7)(13) In general, Microbial enzymes exhibit all
the properties necessary for biotechnological processes.(15)

Protease in an industrially dominant
enzyme which can hydrolyze the peptide bonds.(1)(6). They may be endopeptidases
and exopeptidases (6).protease enzymes are also known as peptidase or
proteinase or proteolytic enzymes.(13) In all the organisms, 1-5% of total
protein content comprises of protease enzyme.(13) these  enzymes neutralize or reduce the
inflammation  in the body.(15)Protease
has great importance in industries as well as biotechnological processes.(1)
its major roles are in foods, pharmaceuticals, detergents ,waste treatment,
tanning, photographic industries and in leather industries.(1)(2)(14). Protease
enzyme is also usefull in dry cleaning, meat processing, cheese making, silver
recovery from photographic film.(13) Plant proteases like bromelin, papain, and
ficin, and the animal proteases like pepsin and trypsin are having many
industrial applications.(6) Enzymic proteolysis is difficult due to complex
protein structure and high molecular weights. Since proteases are specific to
peptide linkages they can split , the selection of appropriate combination of
enzyme is necessary for specific applications.(6) Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus
licheniformis, Bacillus thuringiensi, Pseudomonas sp. Are protease
producers.(13)(14)  Among all the
isolates, Pseudomonas florescens followed by Bacillus subtilis represents the
highest proteolytic activity. Thus the pure culture isolation has manifold
importance in various industries.(9)

Amylase is the enzyme which
hydrolyzes the starch molecules and has many commercial applications.
(2)(6)  They degrade the enzymes by
acting on ?- 1, 4-glycosidic bonds (10). B. licheniformis; B. subtilis,
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens,., Lactobacillus, Escherichia, Proteus, Strepotmyces
sp., Pseudomonas sp. , A. niger and A. fumigates are amylase producers.(4)(10)
(12) But the two bacterial strains Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus
licheniformis has been exploited on the industrial scale.(9)  Now a days, microbial amylases are used in
starch processing industries for the  hydrolysis
of starch.(2)(4) Microbial amylases has a significant role in food, textile
confectionaries, baking, detergents, pharmaceuticals and paper sectors..(2)(4)(9)(10).
both bacterial and fungal amylases are used in cereal product processing, for
foods of breakfast, for dextrin and sugar mixtures, for preparation of
chocolate and licorice syrups to keep them from congealing, and for recovering
sugars from scrap candy of high starch content and have dominated applications
in many other industries.(6)(9) Starch degrading microbes are mainly present in
soil contaminated with kitchen waste as it mostly contains starchy
substrates(9). They are also present in 
soil around mills, cassava farms and processing factories as well as
flour markets.(10)For the industrial purpose, microorganisms are preferred due
to advantages such as cost effectiveness, consistency, less time and space
required for production, demand of bacterial amylases are increasing in the field of biotechnology, textile
industry, food processing and pharmaceutical industry  and amylase producing bacteria can be
utilized for waste management as well.(11)

 (10)

Lipase
enzyme can hydrolyze lipids into fatty acids and glycerol. It can be produced
by many sources like plants, animals and microorganismsi.e. bacteria, yeast and
fungi and possess many industrial applications in food, detergents, paper and
pulp, agrochemicals, biosurfactants, bioremediation and pharmaceuticals etc but
are potentially employed in waste water treatment, dairy and leather industries
and medical industries. (7). Lipase producing organisms can be isolated from
oil contaminated soil, spoiled food and vegetables, industrial wastes and
dairies. (7)(8).lipases produced from microbial source are more promoting
because of their specificity of reaction, stereo specificity and less energy
consumption than conventional methods(8) Different species of organisms from
different environments can produce lipase of varying applications. like lipase
produced by Pseudomonas are demanding in biotechnological processes.(8)

Cellulase is a potential enzyme,
used as a renewable source of energy.(2). Bacteria and fungi also uses
cellulose as a source of carbon(2).cellulose is the main product of
photosynthesis and is degraded by cellulase enzyme. It  is most abundant carbohydrate in nature.and  a glucose polymer  and basic structural material of cell wall. It
may be cell bound or  extracellular. Subunits
of glucose are connected by beta 1,4
linkages.(16)  Its applications
are in beverage, paper, textile industries, washing powder formation, fruit and
vegetable juice extraction, and in starch processins.(16)(2)(19). They are also
used as cotton softening agent, in laundary as a colour care detergent, and for
fibre modification.(16)(17)(19) Bacterial cellulases are also act as catalysts.
Bacteria has high growth rate as compared to fungi has good potential to
be used in cellulose production.(17). Although fungal
cellulose is easy to extract and can produce in enormous amount and can be used
for commercial purpose. (18)  fungi
such as Trichoderma, Aspergillus , Penicillium, Phanerochaete, and Fomitopsis  are cellulose
producers. (18) Cellulase
producing bacteria  are Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus subtilIs, E. coli, and Serratia marcescen, Cellulomonas
species, and Micrococcus.(16)(17)(18)  In all,  Pseudomonas fluorescens is the dominant
one(16) It may become  the most
desirable enzyme of  future because of
industrial demands of  stable and highly
active enzymes as cellulose meet this criteria well. (16) Use of cellulose
in  the production of bioenergy and
biofuel, remarkably increases its importance and worldwide attraction.(2)(17)

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