The designed to alleviate anxiety among their users (Dillon,

   The aim of this paper is to understand the significance of conditions
and colour of the lighting in order to create a comforting space by analysing
the effect of natural and artificial light on people in Edinburgh regarding to
the consequences for mental and physical health. It also looks for building
possible solutions through the use of specific lighting types in space
habitats. The temperature of the light causes psychological disorders in the
human body that affect mental health. According to Scotland Mental Health
Foundation, “Between 2012-15 one in six (15%) adults in Scotland reported
symptoms of a mental health condition” (2017).  The issue of wellbeing is now widely debated
with professionals who plan and build interior spaces. A Well Building
Standard, established by the International Well Building Institute organises
the key elements which includes light and comfort.

With the design of the constructions, the behaviour and development
contribution of people living in it is scientifically proven. According to the
research, the design factor in itself affects human life either positively or
negatively. Our mental health, like our physical health, is influenced by many
variables. The tendency of urban environments to produce anxiety is well
documented in a range of theoretical and historical literature, but there is
little current work that considers how public spaces might be designed to
alleviate anxiety among their users (Dillon, 2005). Acknowledging that comfort
and space perception mutually construct each other, research has been done to
understand the difficulties which people face with both inner and outer space
lighting by interacting with them. The way people behave psychologically is
affected by having a good design or living inside. An overview of the design elements
in architecture is also provided by Williams (1988) who listed unit design,
spatial considerations, sound, light, colour, thermal considerations together.
Heerwagen & Heerwagen (1986) indicated that light affects physiological
functioning, as well as it affects the mood, energy, and behaviour of people.
Knez (2001) stated that light influences nonvisual psychological processes.

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Light makes people not only see the physical qualities of a space but
also add meaning and emotion to space. The use of lighting material plays a
significant role in space design. The aim of this paper is to find the factors
that make any interior or exterior space in Edinburgh comfortable for people
with anxiety. Edinburgh is in the northern hemisphere and located between
55.9533° N, 3.1883° W coordinates. Therefore, in the winter people face more
hours of darkness which even led some of them to leave the city because of the
lack of daylight. For instance, JEN Stocks, 35, decided to emigrate from
Scotland to New Zealand after she was diagnosed with SAD (Bale, 2012). In this
context, it is possible to say that there is a dialectical relationship between
lighting design and mental health. In order to prevent the discomfort, public
or private spaces should be designed considering the needs of people in terms
of lighting.

The initial progress of the project was devoted to further developing
the theoretical framework underpinning the research. The first task in this
process was to examine the segments which form an interior space. Most of the
studies done on the subjective evaluation of spaces under different lightings
have the inspiration from the studies of Flynn. In one of these studies, the
impressions of visual comfort were evaluated with semantic-differential rating techniques
(Heerwagen & Heerwagen, 1986). Mania (2001) divided the impressions of a
space into three categories as Flynn did in one of his studies. One of them was
the perceptual category including visual clarity, spaciousness, spatial
complexity, colour tone, and glare. The other one was the behaviour setting
category including public vs. private space and impressions of relaxing vs.
tense. The last one was the overall preference impressions including
impressions of like vs. dislike and impressions of pleasantness.

 Lighting is one of the significant elements
when designing a comforting space. Specifically, this entailed exploring in the
impact of light on outcomes in healthcare settings. Lighting affects the health
and performance of the user by enabling performance of visual tasks,
controlling the body’s circadian system and affecting their mood and perception
(Joseph, 2006). Biological rhythms that repeat approximately in every 24 hours
are called circadian rhythms. The circadian system should be rated between 0.1
and 0.7 measurement values, taking into account the light level, colour,
timing, exposure time and exposure time to the light in the system definition
which should be present. The case where the value is greater than 0.3 is
determined as the value that the stimulation of the circadian system is most
effective. In studies with Alzheimer’s disease, office workers, young people
and healthy adults, exposure to 0.3 or more for one hour in the early morning
hours of the eye is effective in stimulating the circadian system and indicates
to us that the light is related to sleep, behaviour and mood. According to
Boyce (2003), both natural and artificial lighting systems have health outcomes
such as depression, sleep and the length of stay in the hospital. For instance,
medical hospitals which located in warmer countries had a shorter length of
stay than the ones where located in colder countries. In light of this
information, it is possible to say that the length of stay in a medical centre
Edinburgh is longer than a one in Ecuador.

Circadian lighting is designed to tap into the proven cycles human
bodies’ follow each day, based on the position, duration, and colour of natural
sunlight at any given time. Circadian lighting systems mimic the behaviour of
the sun and incorporate it into the everyday environment, benefiting occupants
by creating a comfortable space and increasing productivity (Herman, 2016).
Existing technologies allow us to recreate the sun’s daily routine to help
manage the users’ of the space circadian rhythms, particularly in spaces that
do not have direct access to natural light. LED lighting fixtures can mimic the
solar colour shift with colour changing technology and standard dimming to
control intensity, creating health benefits similar to what we gain from
natural daylight. It involves controlling the light and getting illuminance to
target areas as possible while minimizing the glare.  Glare, whether from irritating reflections or
overly bright lighting fixtures, can be annoying for anyone, but for people
with anxiety sensitive to stimuli it can be distracting and trigger agitation.
Architectural design elements which will exist in my project like light shelves
can also bring more light into the interior of a space. They can also provide
direct light deeper into space. Exterior overhangs and vertical fins on the
glazing walls of a building can help to get rid of unwanted glare and heat.

The biological clock affects some mental health disorders like anxiety,
depression, seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and dementia. Since human bodies
are designed to respond to light, our chronobiologic rhythms are influenced by
summer and winter seasons. Less winter ourselves feel in form, decrease in
concentration, and slowdown in our reactions. This is the psychological effect
of the seasons. People in summer months become more nervous and also worse off.
But during winter, some people do not only affected by having low mood on the
month, but also have clinical depression. Seasonal depression is more common in
people living in northern latitudes and commonly referred to as the effect of
light on our endocrine system. Longer daylight in summer and more light in the
body reduces the level of melatonin, while winter increases the level of
melatonin in the body as a result of long nights. Besides, colours of light
have different effects on the users of the space. Generally, red and yellow
hues like warm colours, make people feel more comfortable. Especially in cold
cities like Edinburgh, warm colours are preferred in order to be able to show
and feel places warmer to people.

On the other hand, in warmer countries, light-coloured white and blue
tones are preferred. These colours give a feeling of refreshment to the users.
Use of the colour of the light source can add various features to space and
increase the attractiveness.   In today’s
modern world, in the closed spaces and away from the natural light, the
day-night concepts are intermingled due to the increased workload. The prolonged
working hours and consequently the need for artificial light resulted in the
emergence of psychological problems, necessitating the evaluation of lighting
technologies from the human health perspective. It has been observed that when
the different illumination systems are used in the research, the user’s spatial
perceptions change. In a Fleischer survey, people with warm light sources and
low light levels feel comfortable, while at high light levels, anxiety
increases and space is comfortably defined.

By changing the quality and quantity of light, attraction or attention
to space, impressions of spaciousness, impressions of cheerfulness and
playfulness can be reinforced, and sensations of spatial intimacy or warmth can
be stimulated. As an example, the impression of relaxation of a space can be
reinforced by non-uniform lighting, peripheral lighting and warm shades of
white light (IES, 1987). Studies have examined the impact of artificial bright
light on reducing depression. Artificial light treatments usually range between
2,500 lux and 10,000 lux. The treatment is believed to be effective by suppressing
the onset of melatonin. Studies have shown that exposure to natural bright daylight
is used to be effective in reducing depression (Beauchemin & Hays, 1996). The
light and shade created by cumulus clouds, called Heraclitean motion, are
movement patterns that are associated with safety and tranquillity, aiding the
development of a calm, stable mental state; lighting or space design that
mimics Heraclitean motion could be incorporated into building design to create
calm, peaceful areas that aid patients’ recovery. The biodynamic light
(developed by iGuzzini, Troy University, New York, and Spazio architects in
Milan) mimics not only night and day but even the effect of passing clouds.
Research by Wener (Wener, 1990) suggests that windows are more than a luxury
for the incarcerated and that lack of contact with the outside world heightens
stress and depression. In restricted and monotonous situations, a view of the
outside world becomes a necessity.

Treatment with artificial light therapy is another way of integrating light
into people with anxiety. It is called light therapy.  Light therapy shifts one’s biological clock.
It is aimed to alleviate symptoms of those disorders by affecting brain
chemistry, which is linked to the mental state by light therapy. It is used
remove other signs of depression, such as sleep disturbance. Light therapy
takes the place of the lack of sunlight and balances the inner clock of the
body. According to Hedaya (2011), the artificial light consists of either a
light box which emits up to 10,000 lux of light or a lower intensity of
specific wavelengths of light from the blue to the green areas of the visible
spectrum. All symptoms may begin to improve within a few days. In order to
understand the impact of light therapy, a group study was conducted in the UK.
The participants were adults who have been suffering from anxiety and
depression. They were chosen from the National Hospital for Neurology and
Neurosurgery in London, UK. For the therapy, a Diamond 5 Light Box, supplied
from Full Spectrum Lighting UK Ltd is used. At the end of the treatment, a
further decrease in the depression scores was reported (Baxendale et al, 2013).
At the beginning of the trial 16 patients scored more on the anxiety scale
while at the end, 66% patients reduced their score.

Colour is another significant factor that identifies the atmosphere of a
space and affects the psychology of the user. Interviews, patient observations,
and surveys showed that bright and vibrant colours can be jarring and
anxiety-inducing for many patients. Humans feel most comfortable in spaces that
follow nature, such as in biophilic design, instead of monochromatic bubbles,
so the ground should be darkest, like a path, whereas the mid-range, eye-level
colours should be neutral, and the ceiling should be light, like the sky
(Rachel, 2017). At the same time, precautions must be taken to manage glare.
What is recommended is bright, indirect lighting.

Colour is one of the least expensive healing tools. Colour can enhance
light by brightening or subduing spaces, provide sensory stimulation, give
directional and other information, and optically change the proportions of a
room. Surrounding wall colours should not use actual skin colours since both
doctors and anaesthetists judge a patient’s condition through skin tone. Light-reflecting
paint can be used in long, often dark corridors within the dark spaces to
maximise internal light. Research has indicated that visual monotony can
contribute to physiological and emotional stress (Kuller, 1981).

Besides, colour theory (which includes both the colour of the material
and the lighting) was therefore imperative to ensure that the planned colour
palette would have the best impact on patient health (Silvis, 2012). Main
effects of colour of light on short-term memory and problem solving showed that
subjects performed better in the ‘warm’ than in the ‘cool’ and artificial
‘daylight’ white lighting. Interaction effects between colour of light and
gender on long-term memory showed that males performed best in the ‘warm’ and
‘cool’ white lighting, and that women performed better than men in the
artificial ‘daylight’ white lighting. All these results are generally in
agreement with the proposition that light influences nonvisual psychological
processes (Knez, 2001). Colour appeals to emotions and since emotions are
temporal, they have not been found to leave a lasting impression, such as
overall stress reduction, in individuals. The perception of colour is as
subjective as lighting. The quality of lighting affects its surrounding
environment. For instance, when perceiving background and foreground the same
colour appears as different hues in the concept of lighting. When the same
object is viewed under the bluish light of an overcast sky or warmer direct
sunlight the colour appears to shift in each context.

My design idea is to create an interior that would allow adequate space
to function efficiently, as well as aesthetics proved to elevate symptoms of
depression and anxiety. The quest for getaways from the urban life was a
concept realized many years ago. For instance, the Turkish royal family had
their palace in the city. Yet, during the summer months, they would cross the
river to their other palace in the country that employed views of the
landscape. The desire for relaxation and relief from the urban life has always
been sought over. It gives a personal retreat for their minds to relax and
focus in on their lives. The impression of comfort is a subjective impression
evaluating whether space is comfortable. Evaluation of comfort considering the
lighting in a space is based on the following factors influencing the
subjective judgments of visual comfort such as room size and shape, room
surface reflectance, the illuminance level, lamp type, number and location of
lamps, luminance, light distribution, and differences in individual glare
sensitivity (IES, 1987).

Kuller concludes that lighting will become more important in the future,
especially since it is becoming more common with buildings without windows that
have no access to daylight (Dilani, 2017).  Day lit environments have been shown to increase
individual productivity and human comfort# and provide the mental and visual
stimulation necessary for the proper regulation of circadian rhythms. The
principal requirement for the lighting has historically been to provide safe
and secure, anti-ligature luminaires. The modern need is to combine these
elements with a design that provides a domestic quality and an ambience that
promotes rehabilitation and recovery, whilst heeding the need for energy
efficiency. I will involve architectural elements designed according to the
circadian lighting to have as much daylight effect as possible.

Research also showed that an individual’s general satisfaction was
higher when they had the ability to control the lighting levels themselves
since it gives the idea of safety. Therefore all the lighting fixtures will be
controlled manually and will be tunable. The concept of tunable lighting allows
LED lamps to adjust light CCT on demand. Those LED systems enable adjustments
in spectral power distribution (SPD) and light output that are easier to
implement than with conventional fluorescent lighting systems. Tunable
white light not only can adjust the colour temperature but also intensity or
amount of light lumens throughout the day. The CCT ranges from 2400 K at night
to 6000 K midday, aligning with daily colour variation of the sky. The
intensity level also varies, with lower levels of light through the night, and
higher levels in the morning and afternoon. Relative to a non-tunable
system designed to only meet illuminance criteria for the visual tasks, the
tunable systems increased estimated annual energy usage by 19% (Luger, 2017). For diverse groups and
situations, and sense of control is one of the significant factors influencing
stress level and wellness (Steptoe and Appels, 1989). This evidence indicates
that humans have a strong need for control and the related need of self-efficacy
with respect to environments and situations. This adjustability can improve
mental health and productivity since it helps users feel connected to the
outside world.

The comfort zone will act similarly as a retreat for the people with
anxiety to obtain these qualities of a getaway. 
In order to achieve that, I completed three different design research methods
including mapping, design probe and intervention. First of all, the body map
shows where people feel anxiety on their bodies in three different levels.
Secondly, the design probe and the intervention allows different users to
create their own comfort zone and gives an idea about which issues should be
considered when designing an anxiety friendly space such as colour, material
finishes and transparency of the borders of the space. Considering the effects
of different lighting arrangements, found that wall washing enhanced the
impressions of clarity and order in a space whereas cove lighting was the
lighting system that increased the impressions of spaciousness and order and up
lighting was preferred for the impressions of pleasantness, privacy, and relaxation.
Due to the power of colour to evoke emotion, it can become a tool integrated
into the design to highlight and instigate the individual through a sequential
experience in the comforting space. The concept is based on the fact that our
physiologic functions respond in predictable manner to colours. On the other
hand, materiality has a direct influence on the overall sense of the
environment. Materials have the ability to increase or decrease comfort of the
user of the space. For instance, wood is a material that retains heat, is soft
and comforting, and can be associated with the concept of natural environments.
Another material like sand has a therapeutic value to it, soft to touch, and
gentle on feet. However, a stone is cool and smooth to touch, but hard on feet
(Schaller, 2012). When the materials become integrated into the program, the
quality of the materials will embody the vision of the space and become another
dimension in the healing environment.

Within interior design, there are many physiological elements which
impact people. There is no dispute that light affects human physiology and
health. Both direct and indirect pathways for this influence are known,
although not always well understood. The two elements of design that are considered
at the end of the design process which are lighting and colour are inseparable
in terms of how the user experience the space. Boyce and colleagues (2003)
describe studies that show that users’ moods are affected by different types of
conditions and colour of lighting. The intensity of light, hue and the
materials that the light reflects off are significant factors impacting
individuals and their mental health. Therefore, the issues that are ignored in
the field of illumination technologies are now confronted as mental health
problems. Therefore, developing a detailed specification of the desired control
outcomes to identify potential shortcomings and make the commissioning process
more efficient.

Topics such as efficiency, performance, and space sensation have become
indispensable, especially due to the increase in the problems caused by the
physical environment of the interiors. In this context, a design should do more
than producing mental health facilities which are promoting wellness by
creating alternative physical surroundings. At this point, the psychological
state of people from Edinburgh should be taken into account in the development,
production, sale, implementation and design of the light and other design
elements such as colour, material and transparency of borders. It is possible
to create “psychologically supportive” that naturally aim to reduce
negative stress increase positive interaction (Ruga, 1989).


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