What is a genre?
genre is a type of film that is broken down into a certain group of films.
What are sub-genres?
can have more than one genre that they fall into. This is called a sub-genre.
For example, The Last Five Years is a Musical, but its subgenres are comedy and
and Conventions of the Comedy genre:
Ø Comedy films are always
set in bright places
Ø The camera work is always
naturalistic and is filmed so that that the characters are no better than each
Ø The sound is usually
diegetic sound as it needs to be clear, so the audience can hear the jokes.
Ø Lighting is always bright
in the comedy genre because it gives off a realistic approach.
Ø Bright and joyful colors
are used to show that it is positive.
In comedy films, foolish people are
used in a group full of ordinary people, this shows the contrast of the
personalities making the ‘idiot’ stand out more. They also use very intelligent
people and emphasize it to make it funny. Sarcasm is used in this genre a lot.
Just Go With It (2011) – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dMWyeZMA_WU
at the start of this film you can hear happy, joyful music which shows that it
is going to be positive and upbeat. The camera pans from above the tree to the
floor giving an angle of the building that they are about to go in. The
lighting is very bright, and it looks like it is in the summer time, it looks
as that it has been edited to emphasize the fact it is a comedy because of how
bright the sky is.
shot you can see a woman in a wedding dress about to get married and her three
bridesmaids. In the bottom of the shot the words ‘long island 1988’ has been
edited in to set the establishing shot off so the audience can understand the
setting. As you can see by the style of the dresses it is very over the top
which gives it a funny twist. The lighting in this shot is very dim which could
give the audience a clue that something bad is going to happen. There is no
music, just dialogue.
As you can
see, Danny the protagonist is looking upset as he hears the sad truth that the
woman he was going to marry is talking very nastily behind his back to her
bridesmaids. The lighting is still dim and shows sadness through Danny. There
is diegetic sound with dialogue and the shot starts off with a panning shot
from the bride’s dressing room with him outside listening outside.
this shot you can see the bride looking with a sarcastic position as she tells
a story to her bridesmaids before her wedding. It is very well lit which
conveys that it is a funny story. Again, there is no music just dialogue. The
camera is static in this shot.
looks very shocked in this shot because of what he has heard from the bride’s
room. They are joking about his big nose, which shows that they show a contrast
in different people, especially in the comedy genre. Sad music is slowly faded
in as his face stays in the same shocked position. The lighting is still dim
and the only reason it is lit up is because the men’s dressing room light is on
creating light in the dark hallway. The camera zooms into a close-up.
start of this shot it was just Danny’s face with a tear rolling down it. It eventually pans out to the shot of Danny
and his friend. The music is still a piano playing which emphasizes that it is
sad. The lighting is dark as the only light that is on is in the men’s dressing
room although the outside is light too.
films usually have a fast-moving plot, which contains violence. It most likely
has one or more hero and is a genre that puts them in a series of challenges
such as, threats, violence and frantic scenes.
Todorov’s Narrative theory within
Ø Equilibrium: The hero is
doing their normal day to day business, such as, school or work, etc.
Ø Disruption: Hero usually
find about something new about themselves such as a hidden talent.
Ø Acknowledgement of
disruption: Plans to take down an enemy
Ø Attempts to repair
disruption: Hard battle with the enemy to gain what the hero set out to find.
Ø Back to Equilibrium: Hero
lives happy after resolving the initial issue.
Codes and conventions of the action
Ø Characters: main
protagonist is always the hero that controls the action.
Ø Villain often has an
accent that sounds creepy. They hide their identity and usually has a female
Ø Quite a lot of editing
involved in adding sound effects including CGI for explosions.
Ø Intense music, explosions,
gun shots, running, screaming.
Ø Lighting is mostly
daylights but colors like black and brown are used to make the characters more
Ø Action movies take place
in cities, built up areas, tall buildings, underground, and roads.
Ø Fast paced shots in the
films. Tracking shots are common in action films.
opening shot is very interesting. It started off with a panning shot that led
onto a bang with the title ‘with a vengeance’ the editing looks as if the sky
has been edited to make it look like suspicious. The music is very dramatic and
sounds like someone is up to something.
static shot you can see the New York skyline. Before this shot there was a
selection of different shots around New York that are like this one, to set the
scene and the establishing shot. The editing is quite subtle as they have just
made the sun a bit brighter. The music is a song called summer in the City by
the lovin’ spoonful and represents New York.
shows a stereotypical New York street with the burger van and the American
flags. The music is the same but is more upbeat which represents happiness. The
camera shows depth of field because you can see in the background a New York
skyline. This is as static shot.
static shot you can see again that the street is very stereotypical with the
yellow taxis, bright lights and lots of people the background music is the same
volume as it was in the previous shot. Just over the music you can hear the
taxis beeping away in traffic.
is exactly like the previous ones with the cars beeping over the music. And
shows the traffic that usually happens in New York. In this shot you can see
that an equilibrium has been set but not a protagonist. You can see everybody
going around as they do on their day to day life.
as people are going around like normal the next shot shows a department store
explosion. The music stopped playing as soon as the explosion went off. The
lighting in this shot is normal outside lighting. I think that this shot has
been edited for exaggeration with the smoke.
and dance films is a film genre which songs are often sung by the characters,
it emphasizes full scale scores, song and dance routines and are usually films
that are centered on music, dance, song and choreography.
types of musicals:
Ø Broadway or West End musicals
Ø Musical Comedy
Ø Performance Films
Ø Musical Biographies
and conventions of a musical:
Ø Dance routines
Ø Bright lighting
Ø Original songs made by the
Musical Director or somebody famous
Ø Usually themes of love
Ø Male and female signing to
Ø Typically, big, colorful
and over the top sets.
Ø Male: Protagonist and the
Ø Female: Protagonist often
a love interest
Ø Villain: Usually an adult
Ø Associates: characters
that round the narrative out and support the protagonist.
The Last Five Years (2014)
(Comedy/Drama) – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZPmsWTfn3sM
five years is a musical which is not in chronological order. In this shot pans
down from the top of the theatre onto this man playing a guitar. This is the
only audio and is diegetic sound.
next shot immediately after the other, you can see that the two protagonists
are talking to each other over skype or facetime. This shows that this musical
is set in recent times. The guitar is still playing, and you can hear Jamie
making a noise and messing about. This could suggest that the characters are in
a long distant relationship.
this shot is rehearsing a song on stage but the song is the same song that was
playing and started off by the man playing guitar. In the background you can
see that people are moving the set, but no other sound is being made. The
camera is slowly panning across the stage whilst she is singing and shows
others rehearsing a dance. The lighting is very bright which goes along with
the codes and conventions of the musical genre.
just after the last shot that she is explaining a story about her day to Jamie in
song. He responds with a diegetic sound of laughter through their skype call.
The lighting is still very bright. I think editing has been used to make the
shot look brighter. Cathy’s response after was just a nod.
screenshot shows the scene has gone back to the story she was telling. The
camera is static at first and then pans towards the right of the stage. She is
still singing the song about ‘summer in Ohio’.
A thriller consists of a war between the
protagonist and the antagonist. The story is usually a chain of bad events
building towards the climax, the aim of a thriller is for the protagonist to
restore faith while the antagonist wants to destroy.
and conventions of a thriller:
Ø Low key lighting
Ø Dark lighting
Ø Tension music
Ø Quick changes in the shots
Ø Diegetic sound of
Ø Diegetic sound of
Ø Protagonist (Usually sent
on a mission to save or solve a mystery)
Ø Antagonist (Enemy of the
Ø Realistic characters and
action to make it more realistic
Ø High level of anticipation
to keep the tension.
types of thrillers:
Ø Comedy Thriller
Ø Action Thriller
Ø Crime Thriller
Ø Mystery Thriller
Ø Psychological Thriller
Ø Conspiracy Thriller
is an example that I wrote about in a scene of The Woman in Black.
screengrab from the woman in black you can see the protagonist holding a
candle. This suggests to the audience that he is in a house that is pitch black
that needs light. In the background you can see another candle located in
another room, the candle is there to create a spooky environment. The film is
always at a minimum level of darkness so the scenes in the film are never fully
visible. The use of spotlights or individual
candles focus the audience on objects, such as the rocking chair or door
handle, or even just the face which makes the audience become aware that
something is about to happen. The frequent use of blackouts controls the
suspense. Colored lighting is hardly used within the scene, this creates a
realistic atmosphere for each location. This also suggests that he is ‘trapped’
because any other person without directions would run out of the room for
It is a film that has
three different types of genres in one which is called subgenres. It has two
other genres which are Drama and Thriller as well as Horror.
Codes and conventions of
Ø Horror movies usually
place their characters in a secluded location where there is nobody around such
as, in the middle of nowhere, in the woods, dark streets and narrow alleyways.
Ø High and low angles imply
fear and nightmares.
Ø Low key lighting is used
to create dark shadows.
Ø Props can help identify
the horror genre: Guns, knives, costumes, makeup, etc.
Ø Hand held shots make it
hard to see what is going on.
Ø Often, the framework uses
the depth of field, which usually makes it hard to see the scary character
creeping up behind.
Ø Editing can create tension
and suspense if it has been sped up.
Ø Dark colors are used to
link with blood, danger.
IT – (2017) – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DJWJ6RP55nU
establishing shot you can see a little boy in a yellow raincoat walking out of
his house. Like the codes and conventions that I listed previously the use of
dark colors in the editing has made this shot even creepier. You can hear in
this shot the rain and the little boy’s footsteps which is a common noise
within the horror genre.
screen grab you can see the little boy in the yellow raincoat looking back at
the house that he has just come out of. In the audio all you can hear is rain.
This is a stereotypical horror movie with the dark background and it features a
In this picture the protagonist
puts his paper boat that he has made in the puddle that was caused by rain. On
the boat it says the name ‘George’ it could be a foreshadow because somebody
could find this boat. The editing has made it look very dark and gloomy. The
rain is emphasized in this film. In the audio, a piano sound is made, it is
very much like a danger song which creates tension for the viewer.
tracking shot, you can see George is running down his street after his boat
that he has made. He is playing. In the shot before this his brother spoke into
the walkie talkie ‘be careful out there George’ which could suggest that
something bad might happen. The rain is still loud, and the same piano noise is
playing which also makes the viewer think that something is going to happen.
from the front still shows George running after his boat in the rain. It is a
crane shot which show from the top of the street down to floor level. The music
has changed to much happier, uplifting music. George is laughing, this is also
another diegetic sound and is a code and convention of a horror film.
This shot is a bird’s eye
view. It shows George doing the exact same thing running after his boat but
shows you the rain and the scenery above. Unlike most horror films, George isn’t
trapped. He can run wherever he wants. The audio is still the same, the
non-diegetic sound is the music and the diegetic sound is him laughing and the
not looking where he was going whilst running after his boat which made him run
into a sign. This is where George’s boat is ahead, and George finally meets the
antagonist, Pennywise. The music goes to a holt and a non-diegetic bang is
heard when George bumps into the sign showing that everything is not as good as
it seems. Music continues but it is different, deeper sounding. The sign is red
which demonstrations danger.